Department of Health Seal

TGM for the Implementation of the Hawai'i State Contingency Plan
Appendix 21-D
HABITAT PROFILES

APPENDIX 21-D
Habitat Profiles

 

Key Habitats and Species in Hawaiʻi

Mudflats/Coastal Wetlands/Lagoons

(freshwater and brackish)
Representative Location Kāneʻohe Bay (represented above); other principal mudflats occur in Mamala Bay and Pearl Harbor
Sediment Characteristics Well-sorted, fine-grained
Wave Energy Low
Typical Species Common Name Hawaiian Name Scientific Name
Birds Black-crowned night-heron ʻAukuʻu Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli
Fish Scalloped hammerhead shark (nursery) Manō kihikihi Sphyrna lewini
Broad stingray (nursery) lupe Dasyatis lata
Gobies not known Gobiidae
Benthic Invertebrates Alpheid shrimps not known Alpheus malabaricus
Portunid crabs not known Podophthalmus vigil, Libystes villosus
Stomatopods not known Oratosquilla oratoria, Gonodactylaceus falcatus, Pseudosquilla ciliata
Polychaetes not known Neanthes spp.
Plants Bulrushes not known Schoenoplectus spp.
Panic grass (invasive) not known Panicum purpurascens
Pickleweed (invasive) not known Batis maritima
Green algae limu Ulva, Enteromorpha
Seagrasses not known Halophila Hawaiiana and H. decipiens
Threatened or Endangered Species
Sea Turtles Green turtle Honu Chelonia mydas
Birds Hawaiian stilt Ae'o Himantopus mexicanus knudseni
Hawaiian coot 'Alae Ke'oke'o Fulica alai
Hawaiian duck Koloa maoli Anas wyvilliana
Hawaiian common moorhen 'Alae 'Ula Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis
Photo Credits:
Kāneʻohe Mudflat: http://lovelyHawaiʻi.blogspot.com/2009/05/kaneohe-bay-low-tide-sunrise.html
Dasyatis lata: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broad_stingray

Key Habitats and Species in Hawaiʻi

Rocky Intertidal and Tide Pools

 

High Wave Energy

Low Wave Energy
Representative Location Shorelines of all islands where constant wave action, currents, steep submarine slopes, and a lack of offshore sand reservoirs limit the accumulation of sand. ʻĪlio Point on Hawaiʻi is a typical high-energy tide pool habitat.
Sediment Characteristics Little sediment where wave energy is high; accumulation of fine sediment may occur where wave energy is low
Wave Energy Various
Typical Species Common Name Hawaiian Name Scientific Name
Birds Black-crowned night-heron ʻAukuʻu Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli
Fish Hawaiian Flagtail Aholehole Kuhlia sandvicensis
Convict Tang Manini Acanthurus triostegus
Zebra rockskipper Pao ʻo Istiblennius zebra
Gobies Not known Gobiidae
Benthic Invertebrates Hawaiian Limpet opihi Cellana exarata
Helmet Urchin haukeuke kaupali Colobocentrotus atratus
Gastropods Not known Littoraria pintado, Siphonaria normalis, Nerita picea, and Morula granulata
Samoan crab Not known Scylla serrata
Day Octopus Not known Octopus cyanea
Polychaetes Not known Neanthes spp.
Plants Sea lettuce Not known Ulva fasciata; Ulva reticulata
Green Algae Not known Halimeda, Neomeris, Caulerpa
Red algae Not known Hydrolithon, Melanamansia, Pterocladiella, Jania
Brown algae Not known Padina, Turbinaria, Dictyota
Threatened or Endangered Species
Sea Turtles Green turtle Honu Chelonia mydas
Birds Hawaiian stilt Ae'o Himantopus mexicanus knudseni
Photo Credits:
Low Wave Energy: Tidepools at Maui, Puhilele Pt Haleakala National Park by Forest & Kim Starr. Licensed under Public domain via Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Starr_040423-0115_Scaevola_taccada.jpg
High Wave Energy: Exposed wave-cut platform in bedrock. ftp://ftp.nodc.noaa.gov/pub/data.nodc/coris/data/NOAA/nos/EnvironmentalSensitivityIndices/Hawaiʻi/ESI_DATA/INTRO.PDF

Key Habitats and Species in Hawaiʻi

Coastal Fishponds

 

Heʻeia Fish pond

Moliʻi Fish Pond
Representative Location Mamala Bay, Pearl Harbor, several around Kāneʻohe Bay (above), and three on the southwestern coast of Kauaʻi
Sediment Characteristics Surface layer of fine-grained sediment and underlying coarse grains.
Wave Energy Low
Typical Species Common Name Hawaiian Name Scientific Name
Birds Black-crowned night-heron ʻAukuʻu Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli
Northern Shovelers Koloa Moha Anas clypeata
Fish Striped Mullet Ama ama Mugil cephalus
Milkfish Awa Chanos chanos
Hawaiian Flagtail Aholehole Kuhlia sandvicensis
Benthic Invertebrates Hawaiian Oysters not known Dendrostrea sandvicensis
Anchialine shrimp Opae ʻula Halocaridina rubra
Samoan Crab   Scylla serrata
Plants Seaweed Limu Numerous species
Rock-dwelling algae    
Pickleweed (invasive) not known Batis maritima
Red Mangrove (invasive threatens habitat conversion) not known Rhizophora mangle
Seagrasses not known Halophila Hawaiiana and H. decipiens
Red Algae (invasive) not known Acanthophora spicifera
Threatened or Endangered Species
Sea Turtles Green turtle Honu Chelonia mydas
Birds Hawaiian stilt Ae'o Himantopus mexicanus knudseni
Hawaiian coot 'Alae Ke'oke'o Fulica alai
Hawaiian duck Koloa maoli Anas wyvilliana
Hawaiian common moorhen 'Alae 'Ula Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis
Photo Credits:
Moliʻi Fishpond by Joel Bradshaw. Licensed under Public domain via Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Molii_Fishpond#/media/File:Oahu-Moliifishpond-rockwall.JPG
Heʻeia Fishpond: https://fishpondfever.wordpress.com/about/

Key Habitats and Species in Hawaiʻi

Seagrass Beds

 
Representative Location Inner reef flats of south Molokaʻi; ʻAnini (Kauaʻi); near Mamala Bay and Kāneʻohe Bay
Sediment Characteristics Seagrass can inhabit various sediment types including silt, mud, sand, gravel, rock
Wave Energy Various
Typical Species Common Name Hawaiian Name Scientific Name
Birds Black-crowned night-heron ʻAukuʻu Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli
Fish Striped Mullet Ama ama Mugil cephalus
Hawaiian Flagtail Aholehole Kuhlia sandvicensis
Benthic Invertebrates Sea cucumbers loli okuhi kuhi Holothuria atra
Hawaiian gastropod not known Smaragdia bryanae
Polychaetes not known Neanthes spp.
Plants Seagrasses not known Halophila Hawaiiana and H. decipiens
Green Algae/Mudweed (invasive) not known Avrainvillea amadelpha
Sea lettuce not known Ulva reticulata
Green Algae not known Halimeda discoidea
Red algae not known Spyridia filamentosa
Threatened or Endangered Species
Sea Turtles Green turtle Honu Chelonia mydas
Birds Hawaiian coot 'Alae Ke'oke'o Fulica alai
Hawaiian common moorhen 'Alae 'Ula Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis
Photo Credits:
Left: Seagrass. Halophila Hawaiiana. LIMU Species List 2005. University of Hawaiʻi’s Marine Option Program Summer Course Quantitative Underwater Ecological Surveying Techniques (QUEST). LIMU Species List 2005. http://www.kmec.uhh.Hawaii.edu/QUESTInfo/limujs/Limulist/LIMU%20Species%20List%202005JS.htm
Right: http://coconutislandnews.blogspot.com/2012/03/Hawaiian-seagrass-not-your-average.html

Key Habitats and Species in Hawaiʻi

Mixed Sediment Bays and Harbors

 
Representative Location Pearl Harbor
Sediment Characteristics Soft sediment overlaid on limestone platform of fossil reef origin; soft sediments often composed of carbonate grains derived from coralline algae, coral, mollusk fragments, foraminiferans, and tests of bryozoans and echinoderms
Wave Energy low
Typical Species Common Name Hawaiian Name Scientific Name
Birds Black-crowned night-heron ʻAukuʻu Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli
Bristle-thighed curlew Kioea Numenius tahitiensis
Pacific golden plover klea Pluvialis dominica fulva
Brown booby Not known Sula leucogaster plotus
Black noddy noio, `eki`eki Anous minutus melanogenys
Fish Hawaiian Flagtail Aholehole Kuhlia sandvicensis
yellowfin goatfish Weke, weke'ula Mulloidicthyes vanicolensis
Mozambique Tilapia (invasive) Not known Oreochromis mossambicus
Gobies Not known Gobiidae
Hawaiian anchovy Nehu Enchasicholina purpurea
Striped Mullet Ama ama Mugil cephalus
Benthic Invertebrates White crab Kuahonu Portunus sanguinolentus
Samoan crab Not known Scylla serrata
Hooded oyster (invasive) Not known Saccostrea cucullata
Hawaiian rock oyster Not known Ostrea sandvichensis
Soft bodied sea cucumber Not known Ophiodesoma spectabilis
Day Octopus heʻe Octopus cyanea
Polychaetes not known Neanthes spp.
Plants Pickleweed (invasive) not known Batis maritima
Red Mangrove (invasive) not known Rhizophora mangle
Sea lettuce not known Ulva reticulata
Threatened or Endangered Species
Sea Turtles Green turtle Honu Chelonia mydas
Birds Hawaiian stilt Ae'o Himantopus mexicanus knudseni
Hawaiian coot 'Alae Ke'oke'o Fulica alai
Hawaiian duck Koloa maoli Anas wyvilliana
Hawaiian common moorhen 'Alae 'Ula Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis
white tern Manu-o-Kū Gygis alba rothschildi
Photo Credits:
Aerial view of Pearl Harbor. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pearl_Harbor