Department of Health Seal

TGM for the Implementation of the Hawai'i State Contingency Plan
Section 21
CONTENTS

SECTION 21 CONTENTS

               
  21.0 Ecological Risk Assessment Guidance for Coastal Marine Environments in Hawaiʻi
 
  21.1 Framework for Ecological Risk Assessments
 
  21.2 Determine the Need for a SLERA
 
  21.3 Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessment
  21.3.1 Preparing for a SLERA
  21.3.2 Components of a Marine Sediment SLERA
  21.3.3 Step 1B: Screening Level Site Characterization Data
  21.3.3.1 Step 1b, Task 1. Describe Environmental Setting
  21.3.3.2 Step 1b, Task 2. Compile Available Site-Specific and Reference Data on Chemicals and Endpoints
  21.3.3.3 Step 1b, Task 3. Select Assessment and Measurement Endpoints
  21.3.3.4 Step 1b, Task 4. Identify Complete Exposure Pathways and Potential Routes of Exposure
  21.3.3.5 Step 1b, Task 5. Develop the Screening Level Preliminary Conceptual Site Model
  21.3.4 Step 2: Estimating Exposure and Effects
  21.3.4.1 Step 2, Task 1. Compile Screening levels
  21.3.4.2 Step 2, Task 2. Calculating Contaminant Concentration(s) in Sediment and Water
  21.3.4.3 Step 2, Task 3. Estimating Daily Ingested Dose to Birds and Mammals
  21.3.4.4 Step 2, Task 4. Calculate Site-Specific Hazard Quotients
  21.3.4.5 Step 2, Task 5. Decision Checkpoint
  21.3.5 Step 3A: Refine Screening Level Default Assumptions
  21.3.5.1 Step 3a, Task 1. Conduct Background Screening
  21.3.5.2 Step 3a, Task 2. Evaluate Magnitude of Screening Level Exceedance and Frequency of Detection
  21.3.5.3 Step 3a, Task 3. Refine Conservative Exposure Assumptions
  21.3.5.4 Step 3a, Task 4. Obtain HEER Office Concurrence on Refinements
  21.3.5.5 Step 3a, Task 5. Recalculate HQs using Refined Exposure Assumptions
  21.3.5.6 Step 3a, Task 6. Develop SLERA Risk Characterization and Decision
  21.3.6 Uncertainty
 
  21.4 Anticipating and Addressing Data Gaps
 
  21.5 Summary of Decision Logic for ERAs
 
  21.6 Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment
  21.6.1 BERA Refined Problem Formulation
  21.6.1.1 Sediment Dynamics
  21.6.1.2 Chemicals of Potential Ecological Concern
  21.6.1.3 Ecological Receptors (Assessment and Measurement Endpoints)
  21.6.1.4 Refined Conceptual Site Model
  21.6.2 BERA Study Design and Data Quality Objectives
  21.6.2.1 Laboratory Analyses
  21.6.2.2 Sediment Sampling
  21.6.2.3 Pore Water Sampling
  21.6.2.4 Surface Water Sampling
  21.6.2.5 Biological Surveys
  21.6.2.6 Field-Collected Tissue Sampling
  21.6.2.7 Toxicity Testing
  21.6.2.8 Laboratory Bioaccumulation Testing
  21.6.3 Data Analysis and Interpretation
  21.6.3.1 Field Notes
  21.6.3.2 Analytical Results
  21.6.3.3 Toxicity and Bioaccumulation Tests
  21.6.4 Risk Characterization
 
  21.7 References
               
Figures
 
  Figure 21-1. Food Chain Models Can Support Development of Conceptual Site Model
  Figure 21-2. A Simple Diagrammatic Conceptual Site Model for a Rocky Intertidal Habitat with Hardbottom (such as ʻĪlio Point, Molokaʻi)
  Figure 21-3. Conceptual Site Model for a Rocky Intertidal Habitat with Hardbottom
  Figure 21-4. Conceptual Site Model for a Soft-Bottom Bay/Harbor Habitat (such as Hanalei Bay, Kauaʻi, or Pearl Harbor, Oʻahu)
  Figure 21-5. Conceptual Site Model Prepared for a BERA at Pearl Harbor
  Figure 21-6. Conceptual Site Model Focused on Exposure of a Single Receptor Group (Water Birds) to a Single COPEC (Arsenic) in Sediments and Surface Water at Waiākea Pond on Hawaiʻi Island
  Figure 21-7. Conceptual Site Model Focused on a Single Class of COPECs (Energetic Compounds Associated with Discarded Munitions)
  Figure 21-8A. Interim Decision Logic for Sediment Investigations in Hawaiʻi
  Figure 21-8B. Interim Decision Logic for Sediment Investigations in Hawaiʻi (continued)
               
Tables
 
  Table 21-1. SLERA Framework
  Table 21-2. Components of a Marine Sediment SLERA
  Table 21-3. Unique or Distinct Aquatic Habitat Types and Locations in Hawaiʻi
  Table 21-4. Point Sources of Target COPECs in Hawaiʻi
  Table 21-5. Assessment and Measurement Endpoints: Coastal Marine Sediments
  Table 21-6. Elements of a Marine Sediment Ecological CSM
  Table 21-7. HDOH HEER Office Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines for Selected Chemicals
  Table 21-8. Selected Species Profiles
  Table 21-9. Data Gap Analysis
  Table 21-10. Questions Guiding Decision Logic for Contaminated Sediment Investigation
  Table 21-11. Required, Preferred, and Optional Data for Sediment ERAs
  Table 21-12. Typical Depths of Biotic Zone1
  Table 21-13. Typical Tissue Volumes Required for Selected Chemical Analysis
  Table 21-14. Example of Qualitative Field Notes
  Table 21-15. Summary of Leptocheirus plumulosus Toxicity Test Results
               
Appendices
 
Appendix 21-A Species Profiles and Exposure/Effects Data
  Appendix 21-B Scoping Checklist
  Appendix 21-C Defining Ecologically-Based Decision Units
  Appendix 21-D Habitat Profiles
  Appendix 21-E Evaluating Bioaccumulating Chemicals
  Appendix 21-F Refining Assumptions of Bioavailability
  Appendix 21-G Sample Table of Contents: Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment (BERA) Work Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan (WP/SAP) and BERA Report
               
Appendix Tables
 
Appendix 21-B
  Table 21-B1. Potentially Site-related Contaminants
  Table 21-B2. Potential Contaminants in Marine Habitats
  Table 21-B3. Initial Sediment Screening
  Table 21-B4. Initial Surface Water, Groundwater, or Pore Water Screening
 
Appendix 21-F
  Table 21-F1. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors for Fish and Invertebrates