Department of Health Seal

TGM for the Implementation of the Hawai'i State Contingency Plan
Section 9.2
PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION AT NON-AGRICULTURAL FACILITIES AND SITES

9.2 PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION AT NON-AGRICULTURAL FACILITIES AND SITES

The HEER Office recommends safe management practices to limit potential exposure to and test soil for organochlorine (OC) termiticides found in and near wooden buildings built between the 1940s to the 1980s. The recommendations in this section are described in further detail in two HEER Office website fact sheets regarding the past use of OC termiticide, and soil testing for OC termiticides at residential sites (HDOH 2011g, 2011h).

Termiticides is a general term that includes any type of chemical mixture specifically formulated to kill termites. Organochlorine termiticides are a group of persistent pesticides used for termite control in and around wooden structures from the mid-1940s to the late 1980s. Technical Chlordane and/or aldrin were applied in most instances (refer to Section 9.1.3.3). Dieldrin, a breakdown product of aldrin, is also commonly identified at these sites. The chemicals were used primarily by pest control operators in Hawai‘i’s urban areas, but also by homeowners, the military and counties to protect buildings against termite damage.

The USEPA banned all production and import of these and other OC pesticides in the 1970s (DDT) and 1980s (e.g., Technical Chlordane) due to concerns over potential long-term, ecological impacts as well as risks to human health.

Organochlorine termiticides were commonly applied directly to soil underneath foundations (e.g., around wooden piers or under slabs) and/or around the immediate perimeter of a building foundation. Application practices included pouring a liquid mixture into shallow (e.g., six inches) trenches excavated around the foundation, or by injection through holes drilled next to the foundation or in the flooring at the edge of foundation walls.

Reported concentrations of these compounds in treated soil can exceed HDOH soil action level for soil that is regularly contacted by residents or workers over many years. Typically the highest concentrations of termiticides in soil are found beneath the house or around the perimeter extending away from the building foundation up to 1 to 3 feet. The top six inches to one foot usually have the highest concentrations of OC termiticide. These chemicals were developed to be persistent and can be expected to remain in the soil for decades. Concentrations of OC termiticides under building slabs could be higher because the slab can act as a barrier or cap protecting the degradation of the termiticides in the soil over time. In some cases OC termiticides have been identified in open yard areas, apparently due to additional spraying, the existence of a former building in that area, or reuse of treated soil from former building foundations.

The HEER Office fact sheets discuss potential health concerns associated with OC termiticides in soil and recommend that contact with treated soils be minimized (HDOH 2011g, 2011h). Termiticides applied more than two decades ago are not detectable by smell or sight. Soil testing is recommended to confirm the presence and level of these chemicals. Soil sampling techniques are described further in the HDOH fact sheet on soil testing for OC termiticides at residential sites in Hawai‘i (HDOH 2011g, 2011h). This fact sheet provides an overview of the soil sampling techniques for construction or demolition contractors, homeowners, and others. Further information on soil sampling techniques can be found in TGM Sections 4 and 5.

If OC termiticides are confirmed by testing or suspected based on the age of the building then measures to minimize contact are recommended. This can include removal of treated soil or placement of gravel or landscaping around the perimeter of a house or building. Soil treated with termiticides should not be reused for other purposes without testing (refer to Clean Fill guidance, HDOH 2011e).