Department of Health Seal

TGM for the Implementation of the Hawai'i State Contingency Plan
Section 7
CONTENTS

SECTION 7 CONTENTS

Acronyms and Abbreviations
 
7.0 Introduction
 
7.1 Occurrence of Subsurface Vapor Plumes
 
7.2 Soil Vapor Transport Mechanisms and Conceptual Site Models
  7.2.1 Factors Affecting Subsurface Vapor Flow and Impacts to Indoor Air
  7.2.2 Preparation of Conceptual Site Models for Soil Vapor Investigations
 
7.3 Development of Vapor Intrusion Screening Tools
 
7.4 Soil Vapor Investigations
 
7.5 Collection of Representative Soil Vapor Samples
 
7.6 Soil Vapor Sampling Strategies
  7.6.1 Determining When to Collect Soil Vapor Samples
  7.6.2 Soil Vapor Sampling Design
    7.6.2.1 Overview
    7.6.2.2 Soil Vapor Sampling Point Locations
    7.6.2.3 Soil Vapor Sample Depths and Depth Intervals
    7.6.2.4 Soil Vapor Sample Screen Intervals
 
7.7 Indoor Air Sampling Strategies
  7.7.1 Determining When to Collect Indoor Air Samples
  7.7.2 Indoor Air Sampling Design
 
7.8 Sampling Approaches and Equipment
  7.8.1 Whole Air Sampling
    7.8.1.1 Summa Canisters
    7.8.1.2 Tedlar Bags
    7.8.1.3 Whole Air Sample Handling
  7.8.2 Sorbent Tube Sampling
  7.8.3 Passive Sampling
    7.8.3.1 Passive Soil Vapor Sample Collectors
    7.8.3.2 Passive Sampling of Indoor Air
    7.8.3.3 Emerging Technologies
  7.8.4 Flux Chamber Sampling
 
7.9 Active Soil Vapor Probe Installation
  7.9.1 Temporary Probes
  7.9.2 Permanent Probes
  7.9.3 Additional Recommendations for Subslab Probes
  7.9.4 Soil Vapor Probe Tubing
  7.9.5 Soil Vapor Probe Abandonment
 
7.10 Active Soil Vapor Sampling Procedures
  7.10.1 Soil Vapor Sample Timing and Frequency
  7.10.2 Soil Vapor Probe Equilibration
  7.10.3 Soil Vapor Probe Purging
    7.10.3.1 Flow Rate
    7.10.3.2 Vacuum Conditions and Tight Soils
  7.10.4 Soil Vapor Sampling Trains
  7.10.5 Soil Vapor Probe Leak Testing
    7.10.5.1 Sampling Train Shut-In Test
    7.10.5.2 Water Dam Vapor Point Test
    7.10.5.3 Tracer Method 1 – Application of Tracer Gas to Surface Completion Point Only
    7.10.5.4 Tracer Method 2 – Application of Tracer Gas to Entire Sampling Apparatus
    7.10.5.5 Tracer Gas Concentration Measurement
    7.10.5.6 Selection of Leak Check Compound
  7.10.6 soil vapor sample collection steps
  7.10.7 Soil Vapor Sample Notes and Logs
 
7.11 Active Indoor Air Sample Collection Procedures
  7.11.1 Initial Building Survey
  7.11.2 Indoor Air Sample Locations
  7.11.3 Indoor Air Sample Duration
  7.11.4 Indoor Air Sample Frequency
  7.11.5 Indoor Air Sample Containers And Analytical Methods
  7.11.6 Indoor-Outdoor Air Sample Logs
 
7.12 Passive Soil Vapor and Indoor Air Sample Collection Procedures
  7.12.1 Passive Sampling of Soil Vapor
  7.12.2 Passive Sampling of Indoor Air
 
7.13 Soil Vapor And Indoor Air Sample Analysis
  7.13.1 Available Analytical Methods
    7.13.1.1 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
    7.13.1.2 Total Volatile Petroleum Hydrocarbons
  7.13.2 Choosing the Analytical Method
  7.13.3 Field Analytical Methods
  7.13.4 Quality Control Samples
    7.13.4.1 Field Quality Control
    7.13.4.2 Laboratory Quality Control
 
7.14 Data Evaluation
  7.14.1 Soil Vapor Sample Evaluation
  7.14.2 Indoor Air Sample Evaluation
  7.14.3 Additional Evaluation and Remedial Actions
 
7.15 Documentation of Soil Vapor or Indoor Air Sampling
 
References
 
Figures
  7-1. Example Vapor Plume Contours and Vapor Intrusion Pathways.
  7-2 Conceptual Model of Soil Vapor Transport Including Biodegradation Process.
  7-3 Complete Exposure Pathway CSM for Soil Vapor to Indoor Air.
  7-4 Schematic of Soil Vapor Concentration Profile.
  7-5 Summa Canisters (spherical and cylindrical containers) with Flow Controllers (smaller gauges and blue box).
  7-6 Summa Canister and Flow Controller Setups (note smaller flow controller on left).
  7-7 Summa Canister and Flow Controller Parts.
  7-8 One-liter Tedlar Bag with Disposable Syringe and Three-way Valve for Filling.
  7-9 Sorbent Tubes.
  7-10 Two Examples of Passive Soil Vapor Sample Collectors.
  7-11 Two Examples of Indoor Air Passive Sample Collectors.
  7-12 Passive Diffusion Sampler (PDS)
  7-13 Schematic Diagram and Photograph of Flux Chamber
  7-14 Typical Temporary Soil Vapor Probe
  7-15 Installing a Temporary Soil Vapor Probe Using a Direct-Push Drill Rig
  7-16 Vapor Point Completions
  7-17 Typical Nested Permanent Soil Vapor Sampling Probes
  7-18 Installation of a Permanent Soil Vapor Probe
  7-19 Schematic of Typical Sub-Slab Soil Vapor Sampling Probe (see also Figure 7-20 & 7-21).
  7-20 Sub-Slab Soil Vapor Sampling Probes
  7-21 Sub-Slab Soil Vapor Sampling Probes
  7-22 Installation of a Vapor Pin™ with a silicon sleeve directly into slab
  7-23 Soil Vapor Probe Purging Devices
  7-24 Example Vacuum Gauges for Purging and Sample Collection using a Summa Canister Sampling Train (see also Figure 7-26 and Figure 7-27).
  7-25 Lung Boxes with Tedlar bag. Vacuum is drawn on sealed lung box, causing the Tedlar bag to pull vapor from the collection point and fill.
  7-26. Summa canister sampling trains.
  7-27. Example Soil Vapor Sample Collection Setups
  7-28 Soil Vapor Sampling Trains Arranged for Shut-in Test (see also Figure 7-27)
  7-29 Example PVC Coupling "Water Dam" Sealed to Floor with Inert Putty for Leak Testing Slab-mounted Vapor Point
  7-30 Shroud Over Vapor Probe Surface Completion
  7-31 Method 2 Helium Shroud Leak Testing Systems
  7-32 Typical Summa Canister Indoor Air Sampling Apparatus.
  7-33 Installing a Passive Soil Vapor Sample Collector by Hand.
  7-34 Example Plume Map from Grid-based Passive Soil Vapor Survey.
  7-35 Typical Duplicate Sampling Apparatus (see also Figure 23)
 
Tables
  7-1 Decision Logic for Subsurface Vapor Hazards
  7-2 Comparison of HEER Indoor Air Action Levels to Typical Indoor Air Concentrations of Common VOCs.
  7-3 Comparison of Soil Vapor & Indoor Air Sampling Approaches
  7-4 Common Soil Vapor Concentration Unit Conversion Factors
  7-5 Comparison of TCE and PCE Results for Passive Diffusion Sampler and Active Soil Gas Sample
  7-6 Sand Pack Porosity Volume (ml)
  7-7 Tubing Volume (ml)
  7-8 Comparison of Tracer Leak Check Methods
  7-9 Comparison of Leak Check Tracers
  7-10 Summary of Soil Vapor & Indoor Air Analytical Methods1
  7-11 HDOH-Recommended Laboratory Analytical Methods for Soil Vapor or Indoor Air Contaminants and Leak Detection Compounds