Department of Health Seal

TGM for the Implementation of the Hawai'i State Contingency Plan
Section 5
CONTENTS

SECTION 5 CONTENTS

Acronyms and Abbreviations
 
5.0 Field Collection of Soil and Sediment Samples
 
5.1 Initial Site Inspection
  5.1.1 Decision Unit Designation
  5.1.2 Surface Conditions
  5.1.3 Subsurface Conditions
 
5.2 Site Preparation
  5.2.1 Surface Clearing of Debris and Vegetation
  5.2.2 Subsurface Utility Clearance
    5.2.2.1 Information Gathering
    5.2.2.2 One Call Center Notification
    5.2.2.3 Field Evaluation of Potential Subsurface Features
    5.2.2.4 Subsurface Survey Methods
 
5.3 Surface Soil Sample Collection
  5.3.1 Soft, Fine-to Course-Grained Soils
  5.3.2 Moderately Compact, Fine-Grained Soils
  5.3.3 Very Compact and/or Gravelly Soils
 
5.4 Subsurface Soil Sample Collection
  5.4.1 Direct Push Technologies
  5.4.2 Borehole Core Increment Subsample
  5.4.3 Pit or Trench Sample Collection
  5.4.4 Hollow Stem Auger Drilling
  5.4.5 Rotary Drilling
 
5.5 Collection of Samples from Stockpiles
 
5.6 Collection of Multi Increment Samples for VOC Analysis
  5.6.1 Increment Collection
  5.6.2 Subsurface DU Layers
  5.6.3 Alternative Approaches
 
5.7 Sediment Sampling
  5.7.1 Sediment Sampling Equipment
 
5.8 Field Documentation
  5.8.1 Surface Soil Sampling Logs
  5.8.2 Subsurface Soil Sampling/Boring Logs
  5.8.3 Soil Description
    5.8.3.1 Recommended Parameters for Soil Descriptions
    5.8.3.2 Example Soil Descriptions
  5.8.4 Additional Sample Information
 
5.9 Equipment Preparation / Decontamination
 
5.10 Investigation Derived Waste
 
5.11 Field Work Completion
 
References
 
Figures
  5-1. Large Equipment Interfering with Access to a DU Targeted for MI Sample Collection
  5-2. Clearing of Thick Grass from a Targeted DU Prior to the Collection of MI Sample Increments
  5-3. Bulldozer used to Cut Access Paths and Clear 59 Lot-size (5,000 ft2) DUs within a 500-Acre Field4
  5-4. Path Matching Increment Grid Locations Cut Through Thick Vegetation Covering a 50-acre DU; Increment Locations Pre-staked to Expedite Sample Collection
  5-5. Field Indicators of Underground Features
  5-6. Subsurface Survey to Identify Underground Features
  5-7. Various Soil Coring Sampling Tools
  5-8. Collection of Increments with a Sampling Tube
  5-9. Foot-operated Core Sampling Device Developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers
  5-10. Flat Bottom Scoops to Collect Soil Increments from Very Loose Soil.
  5-11. Use of Cordless Drill for Sample Collection
  5-12. Comparison of Auger Bit Designs
  5-13. High-Powered Drill and Portable Generator
  5-14. Use of a Slide Hammer to Collect Soil Increments
  5-15. Use of an Electric Hammer and Spade Bit
  5-16. Collection of Increments Soil Loosened by a Spade Bit or Heavy Duty Hand Tool
  5-17. Heavy Duty Hand Tools
  5-18. Tunnel Bit Use to Cut Through Asphalt or Concrete and Access Soil
  5-19. Direct Push Drill Rigs
  5-20. Drilling Rods for a Direct Push Drill Rig
  5-21. Split Spoon Sampler
  5-22. Continuous Cores Collected using a Push Rig
  5-23. Identifying Targeted DU Layers in Cores
  5-24. Subsampling of Core Increments for Preparation of a Bulk Multi Increment Sample
  5-25. Use of Shallow Pits to Collect Increments from Multiple Layers within a DU
  5-26. Example Use of Trenches for Site Investigation
  5-27. Use of Shallow Trenches to Collect Multi Increment Samples from Exposed DU Layers
  5-28. Hollow-Stem Auger Drill Rig
  5-29. Auger Drill Bit and Drill String
  5-30. Large Truck-Mounted Drilling Rig
  5-31. Pressurized Air Discharge from an Air Rotary Assembly
  5-32. Example Recovered Cores and Rotary Drill Coring Bits
  5-33. Collection of Increments and Multi Increment Samples from a Flattened Stockpile
  5-34. Examples of Opportunities to Collect Increments and Bulk Multi Increment Samples during Stockpile Formation or Movement
  5-35. Progressive Testing of DUs from an Unflattened Stockpile
  5-36. Subsampling DU Layer Increments from Borehole Cores with Methanol Preservation
  5-37. Sediment Sampling Tube
  5-38. Collection of Sediment Increments from a Drainage Canal
  5-39. Alternative Scoop-Shaped Samplers for Thin Sediment Layers
  5-40. Collection of Multi Increment Sediment Increments from a Drainage Canal
  5-41. DU Designation and Collection of Multi Increment Samples from a Sugar Mill Drainage Canal
  5-42. Use of Core Sampling Device to Collect Sediment Increments
  5-43. Removal of Sediment Core Increments from Sampling Tubes
  5-44. Field Subsampling of a Sediment Multi Increment Bulk Sample
  5-45. Use of a Vibracore Device to Collect Sediment Samples in Deep Water
  5-46. Removal of Core Increment from Vibracore Sampling Tube and Subsampling
  5-47. Example Surface Soil Sample Log
  5-48. Demarcation of Decision Units and DU Information Using a Google Earth Image
  5-49. Example Log for Exploratory Borings or Borings Used for the Installation of Wells
  5-50. USCS Soil Classification Scheme (after ASTM 2006d)
  5-51. Triple Wash Decontamination of Sampling Equipment
 
Tables
  5-1 Overall Performance Estimation for Various Types of Drilling/Excavation Methods
  5-2 Relative Performance of Commonly Utilized Drilling/Excavation Methods Versus Commonly Encountered Substrate
  5-3 Measuring Soil Density with Standard Penetration Test and Modified California Sampler – Sands, Gravels
  5-4 Measuring Soil Density with a Standard and California Sampler – Fine Grained Cohesive Soil