Contents
... 1.2.3 Documentation of HEER Office Decisions on Sites   ...
 

1.1 Heer Office Legal Authorities
...public will be kept informed and afforded the opportunity to participate in cleanup decisions The site discovery, site investigation and site cleanup processes that are described ...
 

1.2 Heer Responsibilities Hrs 128d, Har 11-451
...reports, correspondence between the site representative and the HEER Office, and decision documents relating to site assessment and/or site remediation actions. These records are available ...
 
...to records for environmental cleanups. 1.2.3 Documentation of HEER Office Decisions on Sites Decision documents on the oversight of assessment and/or response actions for ...
 
...on Sites Decision documents on the oversight of assessment and/or response actions for hazardous substance releases ...
 
...locations. These documents are available upon request to the HEER Office. These decision documents may include letters of interest, VRP applications, VRP agreement approvals, report ...
 

1.3 Heer Office Organization
...of Defense (DoD) sites. Although the DoD is the lead responsible agency for cleanup decisions on CERCLA-regulated sites under the agreement, DoD funds the DSMOA program RPM positions to ...
 
...applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs). Oversight and decisions on DoD sites involving petroleum contamination only (regulated under the Hawai`i SCP) ...
 

2.4 Environmental Cleanups
...the Hawai'i SCP as activities that involve the collection of environmental data for decision-making purposes. The goal of a site assessment is to identify and remediate contaminated soil ...
 
...SDAR staff review the Site Investigation and EHE reports to make one of the following decisions: The site does not pose a substantial threat to public health or the environment, ...
 
...will be issued The site needs additional assessment to provide reliable data to make a decision whether a threat exists The site poses a substantial threat to public health or ...
 
...or remedial action) The Site Investigation and EHE reports are important decision-making documents and typically provide recommendations for additional actions. It is recommended ...
 
...evaluation reports or additional site investigation documents to warrant a removal action decision. If inadequate data exists for this decision, additional site investigation will be required. ...
 
...If inadequate data exists for this decision, additional site investigation will be required. Removal actions are documented ...
 
...status, adjacent land uses Distance to surface water bodies Situation preceding decision to conduct removal Efforts by Dept. to obtain response by other parties, if appropriate ...
 
...public comment received would be carefully considered and addressed before making a final decision on the appropriate response action. See Section 14 for details on Removal Response ...
 
...is not uncommon for additional site investigation to be required to support appropriate decisions in the following required reports: Remedial Investigation and Environmental Hazard ...
 
...or fill other data gaps related to remedial alternatives that are important for decision-making. This additional site investigation for remedial action responses is generally included ...
 
...the proposed response action within a specified comment period (at least 30 days). When a decision has been made by the HEER Office to hold a public meeting regarding the proposed response action, ...
 
...manager will reassess appropriateness of the preliminary response action, make a final decision on the remedial or removal action, and document the decision in the record. The Final RAM or ...
 
...on the remedial or removal action, and document the decision in the record. The Final RAM or Final RAR, which addresses public comments received and provides ...
 
... and other information in the record. After a response action decision document has been finalized, the following record requirements apply: ...
 
... The HEER Office may add documents to the administrative record after the decision document has been finalized - if the documents concern a portion of the response ...
 
...has been finalized - if the documents concern a portion of the response action decision that the decision document does not address or defers to be decided at a later date ...
 
...that the decision document does not address or defers to be decided at a later date The HEER Office ...
 
...time of comment on any issues concerning selection of the response action after the decision document has been finalized ...
 

Contents
... 3.4 Selection of Decision Units   ...
 
... 3.4.1 Decision Unit Designation   ...
 
... 3.4.2 Exposure Area Decision Units   ...
 
... 3.4.3 Spill Area Decision Units   ...
 
... 3.4.4 Subsurface Decision Units   ...
 
... 3.4.5 Perimeter Decision Units   ...
 
... 3.4.6 Stockpile Decision Units   ...
 
... 3.4.7 Sediment Decision Units   ...
 
... 3.4.9 Evaluation of Decision Unit Data   ...
 
... 3.5 Example Decision Units   ...
 
... 3.5.7 Subsurface Decision Units   ...
 
... 3.5.8 Stockpile Decision Units   ...
 
... 3.5.9 Sediment Decision Units   ...
 
... 3-10. Example Spill Area and Exposure Area Decision Units   ...
 
... 3-11. Example Exposure Area Decision Units   ...
 
... 3-17. Decision Unit Designated to Investigate PCB Contamination Beside Former Transformer Pad ...
 
... 3-19. Decision Units for a Former Pesticide Mixing and Storage Area ...
 
... 3-20. Spill Area Decision Units Designated Beneath Pesticide Mixing and Storage Tank ...
 
... 3-21. Decision Units to Investigate a Proposed, Four-Acre Hotel Site ...
 
... 3-25. Grouped Lots for Decision Units at a Proposed Residential Site ...
 
... 3-35. Decision Units Designated for Characterization of Arsenic-Contaminated Sediment in an Estuary ...
 

3.0 Site Investigation Design And Implementation
...evaluate the extent and magnitude of site contamination ("How bad is it?") and support decision-making ("What needs to be done?"). Site investigations can be carried out at different stages ...
 

Figures
... 3-8 Model/example of Exposure Area Decision Units   ...
 
... 3-9 Decision Unit to Investigate Suspected PCB Spill ...
 
... 3-10 Decision Unit for Large Agricultural Site   ...
 
... 3-11 Decision Units at an Industrial Site   ...
 
... 3-12 Former and Planned Uses as Bases for Decision Units   ...
 
... 3-13 Example Neighborhood-Scale Decision Units   ...
 
... 3-14 Example Lot Scale Decision Units   ...
 
... 3-15 Hypothetical Lot-Size Decision Units   ...
 
... 3-16 Grouped Lots for Decision Units at a Proposed Residential Site ...
 
... 3-17 Decision Units to Investigate a Contaminated Commercial ...
 

3.2 Systematic Planning Of Site Investigation
...appropriate type, quantity and quality to manage uncertainty and reach a defensible decision on appropriate response actions. The HEER Office recommends that the site investigation ...
 
...are modified and expanded in this guidance in order to incorporate the concepts of "decision units" and the collection of representative samples at the beginning of the process. This ...
 
...of field activities should be an essential part of all site investigations. Decision Units and Decision Statements are established up front to reflect the desired end use of ...
 
...Units and Decision Statements are established up front to reflect the desired end use of the data. The data ...
 
...are well thought out and that all samples to be collected are tied to clear decision statements. This will help avoid debate over interpretation of the resulting data and minimize ...
 
...instead are to be applied to the mean contaminant concentration within the targeted, decision unit. In general, contaminants in soil, water, soil gas or indoor air ...
 
...is not generally considered to be a "waste" unless it has been excavated and a decision made for offsite disposal.) A hazardous waste determination ...
 
...prior to the initiation of site activities. Step 4—Define the Decision Units Steps 1-3 above will help to make a judgment call on how to best ...
 
... Steps 1-3 above will help to make a judgment call on how to best establish decision units (DUs) on the investigation site. A DU is a well-defined area of a site where ...
 
... units (DUs) on the investigation site. A DU is a well-defined area of a site where a decision is to be made regarding the potential for contaminants to pose an environmental hazard, ...
 
...a laboratory for analysis. In some cases, an entire site can be defined as a single decision unit; however, it is more typical to divide a site into multiple decision units based on ...
 
...unit; however, it is more typical to divide a site into multiple decision units based on known or suspected spill areas or areas where workers or residents are exposed ...
 
...exposed to soil on a regular basis. A more detailed discussion of the selection of decision units is provided in Subsection 3.4. The size and ...
 
...in Subsection 3.4. The size and shape of a decision unit will depend on the specific, potential environmental hazards posed by the target COPCs, ...
 
... actions. Known or suspected spill areas should in general be treated as individual decision units. Spill area DUs are typically very small, ranging from a few hundred square feet ...
 
...environmental hazards posed by the target COPCs? How should the decision units be defined to evaluate these potential hazards and associated risks? ...
 
...plans and long-term management plans. The designation of DUs and development of clear decision statements prior to the initiation of activities in the field is necessary for all investigations, ...
 
...where discrete samples are collected. Step 5—Develop decision statement(s) Develop decision statements using sampling information ...
 
...statement(s) Develop decision statements using sampling information identified in Step 3 and the decision unit boundaries ...
 
...statements using sampling information identified in Step 3 and the decision unit boundaries defined in Step 4. Specify contaminants to be measured and action levels ...
 
...4. Specify contaminants to be measured and action levels to be used for making the decision. Decision statements are often phrased in the form: IF ...
 
... Decision statements are often phrased in the form: IF the concentration of [chemical] for the targeted ...
 
...are often phrased in the form: IF the concentration of [chemical] for the targeted decision unit based on [Multi Increment sampling methods] and analyzed using [analytical method] ...
 
...hazard and no further action is needed. If the data on which the decision will be based consists of multiple values, then the statistic to be used for decision-making ...
 
...will be based consists of multiple values, then the statistic to be used for decision-making must be specified. The most commonly-used statistics are (see Section 4.2.5): ...
 
... As described in Section 4, HDOH strongly encourages the use of Multi Increment and decision unit strategies to enhance sample representativeness in the investigation of contaminated ...
 
...the representativeness of contaminant concentrations for targeted areas. Selection of decision units is discussed in Step 4, as well as in Subsection 3.4. A comparison of discrete ...
 
...included in setting overall data quality and acceptance criteria. Providing limits on decision errors provides limits on the uncertainty in the data (USEPA, 2006b). Uncertainty ...
 
...the site prior to finalization of the Sampling and Analysis Plan. Final selection of decision units and collection of samples is dependent on a multitude of site-specific factors, including ...
 
...sample variance from the mean. Good professional judgment is essential when selecting decision units for the site investigation. After the environmental data are collected, the data ...
 
...This assessment will determine if the data are sufficient to answer DQOs and address decision statements (Step 5) with the desired level of confidence. ...
 
... or analysis QC criteria? Do the data come from the right decision unit? Are the sample data acceptable based on the field ...
 
... Once the data assessment is complete, data judged appropriate for decision-making are compared to HDOH EALs to screen for potential environmental hazards or evaluated ...
 
...water) over a specified area and volume of that media. The latter, referred to as the decision unit, is tied in part to the specific environmental hazard under investigation (Subsection ...
 

3.3 Conceptual Site Models
...summary figures with areas above EALs highlighted (preferably based on decision unit and Multi Increment sample data); Groundwater contamination summary ...
 
... Significant changes to the CSM may necessitate updates to decision statements (Step 5 of systematic planning), the sampling and analysis plan (Step 6 of systematic ...
 

3.4 Selection Of Decision Units
... ' 3.4 SELECTION OF DECISION UNITS A decision unit (DU) is an area where a decision is to be made ...
 
...UNITS A decision unit (DU) is an area where a decision is to be made regarding the extent and magnitude ...
 
...unit (DU) is an area where a decision is to be made regarding the extent and magnitude of contaminants with respect to potential ...
 
...described in Section 13. A DU is necessarily a volume as well as area of soil. Decision units are designated in terms of size and location in a manner that ensures the ...
 
...of samples that might have been collected under past approaches. Decision units can be designated for characterization of surface soils and/or subsurface soils. ...
 
... Figure 3-10. Example Spill Area and Exposure Area Decision Units Establishing ...
 
... Soil and Groundwater (HDOH 2016). 3.4.1 DECISION UNIT DESIGNATION The designation of DUs for characterization is unique ...
 
...under investigation (see Step 8 in Subsection 3.2 and Section 13). Decision units generally fall into two categories (Figure 3-10): 1) Spill Areas, and 2) Exposure ...
 
... in order to help optimize removal or remedial actions. The need for smaller decision units for future response actions should in general be considered up front, however, ...
 
...concurrently. DUs for different media could overlap but may have different decisions associated with them. 3.4.2 EXPOSURE ...
 
... with them. 3.4.2 EXPOSURE AREA DECISION UNITS ...
 
... Figure 3-11. Example Exposure Area Decision Units  Figure shows areas where residents or workers may be exposed to ...
 
...exposure area is the home range. The size & shape of exposure area decision units depends on the targeted receptor and the desired scale of the evaluation. ...
 
... In the absence of a known or suspect spill area, the most appropriate Decision Unit for relatively immobile contaminants that primarily pose direct-exposure, toxicity-based ...
 
... Examples of DUs based on exposure areas are included in Subsection 3.5. Decision units based on exposure areas can also be established for ecological risk assessments. ...
 
...areas can also be established for ecological risk assessments. Additional guidance on decision units for ecological risk assessments will be included in the TGM in the future. ...
 
...be included in the TGM in the future. 3.4.3 SPILL AREA DECISION UNITS For use in this guidance, a "spill area" is defined as a discernable ...
 
...the initial designation of DUs at the site. Careful planning ahead of time will allow decisions to be made based on the original set of data collected and avoid the added time and expense ...
 
...a dramatic increase in the average concentration of a contaminant across the DU(s). Decision units for these types of spill areas as well as other examples are described in ...
 
... 3.4.4 SUBSURFACE DECISION UNITS A similar approach should be followed for designation of subsurface ...
 
...it may be desirable or otherwise necessary to use an individual borehole as a DU for decision making. The borehole itself can be a "DU" if this is the scale at which a decision will ...
 
...making. The borehole itself can be a "DU" if this is the scale at which a decision will be made. For example, single boreholes might be used to determine the depth to the ...
 
...points. Designation and testing of targeted, DU Layers are especially important if decisions are to be made on data from a single boring. This might include the interval observed ...
 
...concentration of termiticides in the soil should not be relied upon for final decision making purposes. As discussed in Sections 4 and 5, if ...
 
... actions. A more detailed characterization will normally be required for final decision making purposes (unless preliminary data will already be used to assume a potential ...
 
...the effectiveness of cleanup actions. 3.4.5 PERIMETER DECISION UNITS "Perimeter DUs" are established immediately outside an area of ...
 
... within the DUs is completely removed. 3.4.6 STOCKPILE DECISION UNITS Decision unit designation and sampling strategies specific to ...
 
...UNITS Decision unit designation and sampling strategies specific to stockpiles is provided in the HEER ...
 
...to the initiation of site activities. 3.4.7 SEDIMENT DECISION UNITS Detailed guidance on the designation of decision units for sediment ...
 
...UNITS Detailed guidance on the designation of decision units for sediment investigations is forthcoming. Sediment is defined as unconsolidated ...
 
...should focus on migration pathways from suspected source areas to depositional areas. Decision unit sizes and boundaries should be adjusted to address ecological impact concerns and ...
 
... former buildings, suspect dump areas, etc.). Decision units should be designated to characterize the site. Areas of suspected or known heavy ...
 
...criteria will not be met if the highest mean concentration of just one of the 59 decision units exceeds the applicable target action level. Additional sampling would typically be ...
 
...variance within the subject site and assist in subsequent DU placement and decision making. DUs should again be placed in a systematic random distribution, and with consideration ...
 
...approaches should be discussed with HDOH on a case-by-case basis. Decision Units should be placed in a systematic random fashion, and with consideration to adequately ...
 
... terrain, soil type, etc.). 3.4.9 EVALUATION OF DECISION UNIT DATA As discussed in Section 5, Multi Increment samples are ...
 
...with Contaminated Soil and Groundwater (HDOH 2016). When using a Decision Unit strategy, the entire area of a Decision Unit is acted upon as a single entity based ...
 
...Unit strategy, the entire area of a Decision Unit is acted upon as a single entity based on the average contaminant data collected from ...
 
...upon as a single entity based on the average contaminant data collected from that Decision Unit. If the decision outcome is "contaminated," then the entire area of the DU ...
 
... Unit. If the decision outcome is "contaminated," then the entire area of the DU is treated as being contaminated. ...
 
...If the data indicate that remediation is required, this applies to the entire Decision Unit. If the outcome is "not contaminated," then the entire area of the DU is treated as ...
 
...treated as being not contaminated. As discussed above, this makes the designation of Decision Units very important to ensure that appropriate exposure areas and/or spill areas are identified, ...
 

3.5 Example Decision Units
... ' 3.5 EXAMPLE DECISION UNITS This Section provides example decision units for commercial/ ...
 
...UNITS This Section provides example decision units for commercial/ industrial, residential, school, large area, subsurface, stockpile, ...
 
...stockpile, and sediment sites. Examples of both exposure area and spill area decision units are included. A mixture of both types of decision units is often appropriate. The ...
 
...units are included. A mixture of both types of decision units is often appropriate. The examples provided are based in part on site investigations ...
 
...a simple spill area DU placed around a former transformer pad. The purpose of the decision unit is to investigate the presence or absence of PCB-contaminated soil in the immediate ...
 
... Figure 3-17. Decision Unit Designated to Investigate PCB Contamination Beside Former Transformer ...
 
...for the current, commercial use of the property. Decision units designated for a former agricultural, pesticide storage and mixing area are depicted ...
 
...(red), Exposure Area (blue), and Perimeter Area (blue, outside ring) Decision Units for a Former Pesticide Mixing and Storage Area ...
 
... Figure 3-20. Spill Area Decision Units Designated Beneath Pesticide Mixing and Storage Tank ...
 
...with the pesticide mixing area has been adequately defined (refer to Figure 3-19). Decision units in the outer ring (not depicted) are tested as needed if samples from an inner ring ...
 
... Figure 3-21. Decision Units to Investigate a Proposed, Four-Acre Hotel Site DUs A through C represent ...
 
... carried forward as an example in Section 13. Figure 3-21 depicts Decision Units for a proposed commercial development on a four-acre site known to be contaminated ...
 
...commonly in open areas in the yard. Figure 3-22 depicts typical decision unit designations to investigate these potential concerns. A narrow DU (or DUs) is designated ...
 
... Figure 3-25. Grouped Lots for Decision Units at a Proposed Residential Site Exposure area DUs for a former golf course ...
 
...judgmental or “grab” discrete samples but provides much more defensible data for decision making. The potential for “false negatives,” where a small mass of unrepresentatively clean ...
 
...small DUs also applies to targeted “DU Layer” of soil or sediment in a core where decisions are to be made on data for single boreholes (see Subsection 3.4.4). If the targeted ...
 
...4.2.8.2 and Section 5). 3.5.7 SUBSURFACE DECISION UNITS Figure 3-29 depicts designation of a thin horizon that represents ...
 
...locations for all or select DU layers. 3.5.8 STOCKPILE DECISION UNITS ...
 
...pertaining to sampling of stockpiles. 3.5.9 SEDIMENT DECISION UNITS The size of sediment DUs will vary widely depending on the nature ...
 
... Figure 3-35. Decision Units Designated for Characterization of Arsenic-Contaminated Sediment ...
 
... or in stockpiles after dredging, as discussed in Subsection 3.5.7. Decision unit area and volume designation is based on targeted contaminants of concern and related ...
 

3.6 Sampling And Analysis Plans
...procedures to ensure that sampling design and measurement errors meet the tolerable decision error specified. The QA/QC procedures are described within the Quality Assurance ...
 
...for storing remaining portions of MI samples that have been analyzed, until site sampling decisions are completed. Based on initial data analysis or new information, additional analyses may ...
 
... The HEER Office strongly encourages the use of Multi Increment/Decision Unit strategies to investigate contaminated soil. Multi Increment samples are collected ...
 
...air is presented in Sections 5, 6, and 7, respectively. The application of Decision Unit approaches is recommended for characterization of sediment and surface water as well as ...
 

3.7 Quality Assurance Project Plans
... The QAPP is required for all data collection activities that generate data for use in decision-making. It contains information on project management, measurement and data acquisition, assessment ...
 

3.8 Data Quality Assessment
...whether the type, quantity, and quality of sampling data are adequate to support the decision making process (Data Quality Assessment - DQA). Data Quality Assessment is performed ...
 
... whether the type, quantity, and quality of sampling data are adequate to support the decision making process. Step 1: Review the DQO and Sampling Design Review ...
 
...statistical methods to assess the data. During the DQO development process, limits on decision error tolerance are specified. Uncertainty limits are typically proposed by establishing performance ...
 
...data is small enough to indicate that the data are of sufficient quality to support decisions within the tolerable error rates expressed in the DQO During field ...
 

3.9 Site Investigation Reports
... Site investigation objectives (including DQO) Selection of Decision Units, including replicates Figures displaying all DU locations ...
 

4.0 Decision Unit And Multi Increment Sampling For Soil And Sediment Characterization
... ' SECTION 4 DECISION UNIT CHARACTERIZATION Interim Final - August, 2016 ...
 

Contents
... 4.0 Characterization of Decision Units   ...
 
... 4.3.2 Designation of Decision Units   ...
 
... 4-8 Example Decision Units (a and b)   ...
 
... 4-1 Approximate Increment Spacing for Decision Unit Area (see Equation 1)   ...
 
... Recommended Adjustment of Multi Increment Data for Decision Making Based on Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) of Replicate Samples ...
 

4.0 Characterization Of Decision Units
... ' 4.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF DECISION UNITS Section 3 discusses the importance of Decision Unit (DU) designation as ...
 
...UNITS Section 3 discusses the importance of Decision Unit (DU) designation as part of the Systematic Planning process of an environmental investigation. ...
 
...of an environmental investigation. A DU is and area and volume of soil for which a decision is to be made. In most cases this will involve an estimation of the mean concentration of contaminants ...
 
...overview of sampling theory and �incremental sampling� methods as well as examples of Decision Unit designation under different site scenarios. The document is especially strong in laboratory ...
 
...theory for the collection of representative data and should not be used for final decision making purposes. Decision Unit and Multi Increment sampling methods are not simply �another ...
 
...making purposes. Decision Unit and Multi Increment sampling methods are not simply �another tool in the toolbox�. This ...
 

4.1 Sampling Theory And Variability Of Contaminant Concentrations In Soil
...study site into smaller DUs for more detailed characterization, if needed, for decision making purposes (see dashed lines in Figure 4-3). ...
 
...or in the laboratory prior to publication of these and other guidance documents. Decision making error based on the use of discrete sample data is high and even unavoidable in several ...
 
...to approximate mean contaminant concentrations for comparison to screening levels and decision making was similarly recognized but not fully appreciated in early risk assessment guidance ...
 
...and the environment. The appropriate area and volume of soil for decision making is determined as part of the Decision Unit designation process (e.g., spill ...
 
...making is determined as part of the Decision Unit designation process (e.g., spill area or exposure area DUs; see Section 3). ...
 
...through the use of Multi Increment sampling methods. The cause of decision error associated with the use of discrete sample data is ultimately simple � the sample ...
 
...2) Sample collection methods, 3) Sample processing methods and 4) Analytical error. Decision units and Multi Increment sampling methods are used to minimize and evaluate these potential ...
 

4.2 Use Of Multi Increment Samples To Characterize DUs
...number of small "increments" of soil from multiple locations within the targeted Decision Unit (DU). Multi Increment samples improve the reliability of sample data by reducing the ...
 
...data and a higher reproducibility. Higher reliability supports greater confidence for decision making. The theory supporting Multi Increment sampling is based on ...
 
...relevant information and choosing DUs where COPCs will be representatively sampled. Decision units represent the desired scale of mean contaminant concentration for decision making. ...
 
...units represent the desired scale of mean contaminant concentration for decision making. As discussed in Section 3, considerations in choosing DUs include: ...
 
...Environmental Action Levels (EALs) or approved, alternative screening levels to make decisions regarding the need for any subsequent response actions. ...
 
... Figure 4-8a. Example Decision Units (see also Section 3.4) DU for spill area contaminated with lead. Flags ...
 
... Figure 4-8b. Example Decision Units DU for hypothetical, residential lot on former agricultural land. Rows ...
 
...mass of the Multi Increment samples collected are not dependent on the size of the decision unit. If the decision unit is the size of a small backyard garden suspected to be impacted ...
 
...unit. If the decision unit is the size of a small backyard garden suspected to be impacted by sprayed pesticides, ...
 
...pesticides, then a minimum of 30 increments of similar mass is collected. If the decision unit is a 10-acre former field likewise suspected to be impacted by sprayed pesticides, ...
 
...near the EAL, where the degree of sampling error could be critical for a final site decision (see Subsection 4.2.7). 4.2.3 TARGET MULTI INCREMENT SAMPLE ...
 
...thirty days (consult laboratory for details). If archiving of samples is warranted or decisions on potential additional analyses of remaining MIS soils have not been made within 30 days, ...
 
...feasible in terms of time and cost for many projects, however, or even necessary for decision making in cases where there is already a high confidence of the reproducibility of the ...
 
...an RSD of 35% is considered to indicate good reproducibility and reliable data for decision making. An RSD of >100% is considered to be very poor, and not typically appropriate ...
 
...of >100% is considered to be very poor, and not typically appropriate for final decision making (see discussion below). A 95% Upper Confidence Level (UCL) of ...
 
...can be calculated for the DU if necessary. This can be used to assist in decision making regarding the potential risks posed by the contamination and the need for remedial ...
 
...Confidence Level (UCL) of the mean for comparison to action levels and for final decision making. This will necessarily be a site-specific decision and is part of the iterative, ...
 
...making. This will necessarily be a site-specific decision and is part of the iterative, DQO process described in Section 3 of the ...
 
...in Section 3 of the TGM. Adjustment of Data for Decision Making Table 4-2 presents a recommended approach for evaluation ...
 
...additional, multiple lines of evidence for acceptance (or rejection) of the data for decision making purposes. This can, for example, include knowledge of the site history and the anticipated ...
 
... Additional, multiple lines of evidence for acceptance (or rejection) of the data for decision making purposes should be provided. This approach recognizes cases where two of three replicate ...
 
...number of replicate samples; and α = acceptable level of potential decision error (e.g., 0.05 or 5% for a 95% UCL); ...
 
... where the symbol α is again the acceptable level of potential decision error. ...
 
...is known or suspected (refer to Section 7). Decision Unit and Multi Increment sampling approaches should be used to characterize soil for volatile ...
 
...In some cases each side wall and floor of an excavation area may be separate Decision Units, or the floor of an excavation could be divided into more than one Decision Unit ...
 
...Units, or the floor of an excavation could be divided into more than one Decision Unit to evaluate a more specific area where contamination may have migrated. In other cases, ...
 
...In other cases, certain side walls or all the side walls maybe combined into a single Decision Unit. The rationale for selecting DUs within an excavation should be clearly addressed ...
 
... 4.2.8.2 COLLECTION OF SUBSURFACE MULTI INCREMENT SAMPLES Decision Unit designation for subsurface soil is discussed in Section 3.4.4. A detailed discussion ...
 
..."increment" for the DU layer, identical to increments collected from a surface soil decision unit. Use of a direct-push rig allows collection of continuous cores and collection of ...
 
...RSD >50%), then select cores could be re-sampled to improve data quality and decision making. Alternative characterization approaches should also be considered ...
 
... leaching hazards. Sampling constraints and potential impacts on data quality and decision making should be discussed in the resulting site investigation report and Environmental ...
 

4.3 Use Of Discrete Samples
... of contamination. The use of discrete soil sample data is not recommended for final decision making purposes as part of an environmental investigation (HDOH, 2015,b; Brewer et ...
 
...thickness, etc.) based on discrete sample data should not be used for decision making purposes without adjustment to reflect additional site knowledge and professional ...
 
...false sense of precision in computer-generated isocontour maps and lead to erroneous decisions regarding the need to continue or halt site investigations or remedial actions (HDOH 2015b; ...
 
... As discussed below, such maps can subsequently be used to help designate Decision Units and carry out a more reliable and higher resolution Multi Increment sample ...
 
...requires significant experience and professional judgment on the part of decision makers. ...
 
... sample data is highly unreliable and is not recommended or acceptable for final decision making purposes. Large-scale patterns reliably identified by grids ...
 
...discrete sample data. 4.3.2 DESIGNATION OF DECISION UNITS In spite of the limitations noted above, tight grids of discrete ...
 

4.4 Common DU-MIS Investigation Mistakes And Problems
... 4.4.1 INAPPROPRIATELY SIZED DUs The designation of Decision Units for site characterization is discussed in Section 3.4. It is important to ensure ...
 
...to ensure that DUs are appropriately sized to meet site investigation objectives. Decision Units should ultimately be sized to address potential environmental hazards posed by contaminants ...
 
...an initially large DU. If this occurs and the resulting data are inadequate for decision making (see Subsection 4.2.7), then the original DU should be subdivided into smaller ...
 
...of inappropriately small DUs can also interfere with an efficient site investigation. Decision unit sizes are guided by the need to address risk and optimize remedial efforts. While ...
 
...then field replicate data is crucial to help evaluate the usefulness of the data for decision-making. In general, using fewer increments than recommended increases the likelihood that ...
 
... Most importantly, DUs should be appropriately sized to the desired scale of decision making at the start of the investigation. If better resolution might be needed for ...
 
... area is also negligible, especially given the importance of the resulting data in decision making. Collecting an adequate mass of soil (e.g., 1-2 kg) is usually ...
 
...required to ensure that the resulting data are technically defensible and useful for decision making purposes. The fact that a targeted layer of soil is covered by additional soil that ...
 
...of data limitations is also important where single borings are used for decision making purposes (see Section 3.4.4). Another error sometimes encountered ...
 
...the gross recognition of large contaminant patterns (see HDOH 2015b). Decision Unit layers, rather than single horizons should be designated and targeted for characterization ...
 
...�sample areas� or �contaminated zones,� referred to in HDOH guidance as �Decision Units (DUs)� represents a composite sample. This can lead to a potential dilution ...
 
...3 of HDOH Technical Guidance Manual for information on designation of Decision Units at contaminated properties. ...
 
... each potential area (USEPA 1987): The decision maker must determine� the acceptable probability of not finding an existing contaminated ...
 

Contents
... 5.1.1 Decision Unit Designation   ...
 
... 5-48. Demarcation of Decision Units and DU Information Using a Google Earth Image ...
 

5.0 Collection Of Soil And Sediment Samples
...reproducible data in both the field and the laboratory if they are to be used for final decision making purposes (e.g., USEPA, 1995b; USACE, 1996; NJDEP, 2005; Nielsen, ...
 
... design and measurement errors are controlled sufficiently to meet the tolerable decision error rates specified in the DQOs. Individuals planning or conducting site investigations ...
 
...during all stages of investigation to discuss issues such as: Appropriate decisions, data needs, DQOs; Aligning sampling strategy with investigation ...
 

5.1 Initial Site Inspection
...These topics are discussed in detail in the following sections. 5.1.1 DECISION UNIT DESIGNATION Designation of Decision Units (DUs) for characterization is an important ...
 
...UNIT DESIGNATION Designation of Decision Units (DUs) for characterization is an important part of the initial site investigation process ...
 
...is an important part of the initial site investigation process (see Section 3). Decision Unit locations are based on the site history and known or suspect areas of contamination. ...
 

5.4 Subsurface Soil Sample Collection
... 5.4 SUBSURFACE SOIL SAMPLE COLLECTION Designation of Decision Units for the collection of subsurface Multi Increment samples is discussed in Section ...
 

5.6 Collection Of Multi Increment Samples For VOC Analysis
...usable for qualitative, screening level purposes only (e.g., presence or absence). Decision making should be supported by the collection of soil gas sample data at the site (recommended ...
 

5.7 Sediment Sampling
...will be expanded in the future to include more detailed information. Well-thought-out Decision Units and investigation objectives are required for sediment investigations in the manner ...
 

5.8 Field Documentation
... etc; Decision Unit coordinates (e.g., latitude and longitude of DU corners); ...
 
... Figure 5-48. Demarcation of Decision Units and DU Information Using a Google Earth Image ...
 
...Positioning System (GPS) equipment is acceptable to record the boundaries of Decision Units (e.g. four corners of a rectangular-shaped Decision Unit). The accuracy of the equipment ...
 
...Units (e.g. four corners of a rectangular-shaped Decision Unit). The accuracy of the equipment to be used should be documented in the SAP. Any potential ...
 

6.0 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling Guidance
...groundwater or surface water, and that data derived from these samples can be used for decision making purposes. This section also presents guidance for monitoring well construction, purging, ...
 
...sampling design and measurement errors are controlled sufficiently to meet the tolerable decision error rates specified in the Data Quality Objectives (DQO). ...
 

6.2 Monitoring Well Installation and Abandonment
...instances, they are not suitable for long-term monitoring of groundwater or for final decision making purposes. The intended use of data collected from temporary monitoring wells ...
 

6.5 Groundwater Sample Collection Methods
... and discharge applications are illustrated in Figure 6-15. For final decision-making purposes, sampling for volatile organics using bailers is not recommended due to potential ...
 

Contents
... 7-1 Decision Logic for Subsurface Vapor Hazards ...
 

Tables
... 7-1 Decision Logic for Subsurface Vapor Hazards ...
 

7.5 Soil Vapor Or Indoor Air Sampling Methods
...underestimation of representative concentration of a chemical in soil within a targeted, “Decision Unit” area. The effect of subsurface heterogeneity on the representativeness of soil vapor ...
 
...small number of samples collected in the field, and the lack of well-thought-out Decision Units in soil vapor investigations typically means that the maximum concentration of a chemical ...
 
... of a chemical detected in samples is used for comparison to soil gas action levels and decisions regarding the need for additional investigation or remediation (see Section 7.6.2.2 and Section ...
 

7.6 Soil Vapor Sample Collection Procedures
...with volatile chemicals (HDOH 2016): Table 7-1 Decision Logic for Subsurface Vapor Hazards ...
 
... anticipated background levels in indoor air. Table 7-1 provides the decision logic for determining when soil vapor sampling is recommended (Step 2) based on the occurrence ...
 
...soil vapors (see Section 7.2). The HEER Office is investigating the use of Decision Unit (DUs) and Multi-Increment Sample (MIS) approaches to obtain more representative data and ...
 
...establish site investigation objectives (refer to Sections 2 and Section 3). Decision Units designated for vapor intrusion would necessarily be tied to the footprint of existing ...
 
...(HDOH 2016). Less conservative soil gas action levels may be appropriate for final decision making purposes at a commercial/industrial site. Failure to compare site data to residential ...
 

7.7 Indoor Air Sample Collection Procedures
...York State DOH 2006). The evaluation of potential vapor intrusion hazards and decisions regarding the need for remedial actions will instead, in most cases, focus on subslab or crawl ...
 

7.8 Soil Vapor or Indoor Air Sample Analysis
...data and/or sorbent tube data (provided a minimum one-liter sample is drawn) for final decision making purposes. General procedures when planning a soil vapor investigation ...
 
...canisters or sorbent tubes for sample collection if the data are to be used for final, decision making purposes. Tedlar bags are flexible, plastic bags that can be used for the collection ...
 
...intrusion studies. One evolving approach is to subdivide a site into targeted Decision Units (DU) for screening characterization. Active soil vapor sampling will be targeted for ...
 
...is the ability to collect and then combine multiple samples within individual, targeted Decision Unit areas for comparison to adjacent areas or for estimation of time-averaged VOC concentrations ...
 

7.10 Documentation of Soil Vapor or Indoor Air Sampling
...depth, the timing and frequency of sample collection will necessarily be a site-specific decision and should be discussed with the overseeing HDOH project manager. General guidance is, however, ...
 
...plume, and the sample data are not intended for use in risk assessment or site closure decisions, then sampling 30 minutes after installation would be acceptable. To obtain quality ...
 
...sampling 30 minutes after installation would be acceptable. To obtain quality data for decision making, permanent soil vapor probes should be allowed to equilibrate for at least 24 (direct ...
 

Contents
... 9-1 Methane Mitigation Decision Matrix   ...
 

9.1 Pesticide Contamination at Former Agricultural Facilities and Sites
... level investigations above laboratory reporting limits (e.g., neighborhood-size decision units) should be carried forward in more detailed investigations (e.g., lot-size decision units). ...
 
...units) should be carried forward in more detailed investigations (e.g., lot-size decision units). Refer to Section 3 and Section 4 for additional information on sampling decision ...
 
...units). Refer to Section 3 and Section 4 for additional information on sampling decision units and sampling strategies. Table 9-2 Summary of Target ...
 
...in abandoned, former mixing areas above levels of potential concern. Full testing of Decision Units within a former pesticide mixing area most suspected of heavy contamination is recommended. ...
 

9.3 Petroleum Contaminated Sites
...is included in TGM Section 19 as Appendix 19-A. The document includes three, supporting decision trees for determining the need for continued, HDOH oversight. Self-implemented, long-term management ...
 
...potential source of polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) in soil is important for decision making. Benzo(a)pyrene, the most potent of the PAHs, is almost always the risk driver in soils ...
 

Figures
... 4-1 Example Decision Units   ...
 
... 4-14 Multi-Increment Decision Units Chosen with Use of Initial Discrete Sampling Data ...
 

10.0 Data Quality Assurance and Quality Control
...any remedial actions at a site will be correctly selected Ensure that site management decisions are arrived at with the correct information Not devoting proper time and resources ...
 

10.1 Project Specific Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) Requirements
... QAPP is required for all data collection activities that generate data for use in decision-making. It contains information on project management, measurement and data acquisition, assessment ...
 

10.2 Quality Assurance Objectives
...the appropriate type, quantity and quality to manage uncertainty and reach a defensible decision on appropriate response actions. To ensure that data obtained during a site investigation ...
 

10.3 Data Quality Assurance Procedures
... Soil replicates/ triplicates Depends on numbers of Decision Units (DU), COPCs, site characteristics. See Section 4.2.3 regarding field replicates ...
 
...of increments or samples to determine a representative average COPC concentration in each decision unit; collecting samples at several different phases of natural or anthropogenic cycles; ...
 
...This evaluation will help determine whether any limitations are associated with the decisions to be made based on the data collected. Completeness is a percentage value, ...
 

10.6 Field QA/QC
...replicate samples are duplicate or triplicate samples collected from within the same decision unit or from the same groundwater well to evaluate the precision of the sampling effort. Replicates ...
 
... activity (e.g., replicates provide a measure of contaminant heterogeneity for a specific decision unit). If the degree of contaminant heterogeneity exceeds established DQO in the SAP, then ...
 
...whichever is greater. At least 10% replicate QA/QC samples should be collected in each decision unit or each area of known or suspected contamination. Consider both the horizontal and vertical ...
 
...data to applicable HEER Office EALs (See Section 4.2.5). The number of decision units where Multi-Increment sample replicates are collected will vary with each project, total ...
 
... sample replicates are collected will vary with each project, total number of decision units, and site characteristics. Consequently the number of DUs with replicates is ...
 
...approach (similar to that used in the lab) may be applied in the field, if multiple decision units are similar (e.g., similar soil type, contaminants of concern, history of chemical use, ...
 
... deviation are used to calculate, with 95% confidence, the mean value for the individual decision unit. Formulas and spreadsheets for calculating the 95% UCL are available through websites ...
 
...will or will not include equipment rinsate blanks, and discuss the rationale for this decision. Field (water) source blanks are required to be analyzed whenever equipment is decontaminated ...
 

13.3 TIER 1 ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION LEVELS
...data can be collected to more closely evaluate this potential hazard. Incorporating these decisions in the sampling and analysis plan for the site will help expedite completion of the ...
 

13.5 STEPS TO ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD EVALUATION
... As discussed in Sections 3 and Section 4, sites should be subdivided into individual decision units (DU) and the representative concentration of target COPCs within each DU determined. ...
 
...sample data to evaluate direct exposure concerns in targeted decision units �    ...
 
...it is assumed a person would have equal access to all parts of the exposure area (i.e., decision unit), not just the contaminated areas. For large, industrial complexes, the property ...
 
...areas. For large, industrial complexes, the property may need to be divided into smaller decision units based on specific exposure areas (e.g., specific work areas at an industrial site). The ...
 
...are identified then specific spill areas should be identified and treated as separate decision units. This is because the spill area, not the site as a whole, is the target where the "receptor" ...
 

14.0 Removal Actions
...removal action cleanup alternatives (see Subsection 14.2.3). The core decision-making process used in conducting removal actions is the same as used for remedial actions. ...
 
...actions is the same as used for remedial actions. However, for remedial actions key decisions are subject to a more intense level of review and scrutiny (see Section 2, Figure ...
 
... 2, Figure 2-2 for differences in required documentation). In both cases, decision-making should be conducted in a structured manner, following the same general hierarchy of ...
 
... response removal action, where an on-scene coordinator may be making on-the-spot decisions based primarily on field observations, the decision-making process used will correspond in ...
 
...based primarily on field observations, the decision-making process used will correspond in general terms to that used in non-emergency release ...
 

14.1 Removal Actions for Emergency Response
...undertaking the proper response action This assessment data is used to make decisions to protect human health and the environment, and to initiate release response removal actions, ...
 

14.2 Removal Actions for Non-Emergency Environmental Cleanups
... 14.2.1 Data Review and Data Collection Following the decision to conduct a non-emergency removal action, any existing data is reviewed and additional data ...
 
... Description of release/threat of release and environmental hazards Situation preceding decision to conduct removal Removal action alternatives considered Description/rationale for ...
 

15.1 FTC Overview
... the HEER Office will issue a "No Further Action" (NFA) letter. For sites where cleanup decisions are based on commercial/industrial land use or other limited exposures, the HEER Office will ...
 

15.3 Screening And Eligibility
...care, or unrestricted access such as a public recreational area Site cleanup decisions would have a significant impact on the local community and thereby require public review ...
 

15.4 Application and Agreement
...at no cost to the FTC applicant. A flow chart depicting the overall process and key decision points of the FTC is presented in Figure 15-2. Appendix 15-C provides responses to ...
 

15.5 Site Assessment Process
...sampling at release sites demonstrate that contamination in areas of concern (i.e. decision units) are below the EALs, then a more comprehensive assessment or additional evaluation is ...
 
... the FTC participant. The site assessment and EHE are critical steps in the decision-making process to make FTC sites successful. HDOH recommends that participants consult with ...
 

15.6 Site Cleanup Process
...sufficient data is available in the site assessment and EHE to support all removal action decisions, including the acceptability of any management actions in an EHMP. If data is insufficient ...
 
...the acceptability of any management actions in an EHMP. If data is insufficient for a decision, the HEER Office will require additional site investigation or revision of the EHMP. ...
 

Appendix 15-C Frequently Asked Questions
...the art sampling protocols, like Multi-increment sampling(MIS) & use of Decision Units (DUs)? Previous sample results ...
 
... The HEER Office strongly recommends technical consultations at key decision points of the project, particularly regarding the sampling strategies, upon completion ...
 

16.1 Conducting a Remedial Investigation
...removal actions and often require additional site investigation to support appropriate decisions. The remedial investigation helps define and evaluate the nature and magnitude of the threat; ...
 
... not uncommon for additional site investigation to be required to support appropriate decisions in the remedial alternatives analysis. The following steps should be conducted, ...
 

16.3 Selection of a Cleanup Remedy for the Remedial Action
...and sufficient information has been gathered for public review and a remedy selection decision, the HEER Office will solicit public review and comment on the preferred remedy selection decision ...
 
...the HEER Office will solicit public review and comment on the preferred remedy selection decision prior to making a final remedy selection. The final remedial alternative selection is ...
 
...the proposed response action within a specified comment period (at least 30 days). When a decision has been made by the HEER Office to hold a public meeting regarding the proposed response action, ...
 
...and e-mail comments on the Draft RAM and assess whether the preferred remedy selection decision is appropriate, make a final remedy selection decision, and document the decision by preparing ...
 
...is appropriate, make a final remedy selection decision, and document the decision by preparing a Final RAM for inclusion in the site administrative ...
 
...and document the decision by preparing a Final RAM for inclusion in the site administrative record. The Final RAM is ...
 
... RAM for inclusion in the site administrative record. The Final RAM is HDOH's official decision on how the site is to be cleaned up. If the HEER Office decides there will be no changes to ...
 
... after publication of the Draft RAM but before the HEER Office's final remedy selection decision that may substantially change the consideration of the performance or costs associated with ...
 
...selection. Additional public notice is not required when a final remedy selection decision is made. However, it is recommended that notice be given to interested parties as ...
 

16.4 Implementing the Cleanup Remedy Selected
...the Cleanup Remedy Selected The issuance of a Final RAM only means that a decision has been reached as to how the cleanup of the site should be completed. The next step is to ...
 
...be conducted when remedial actions are complete, including the selection of appropriate decision units and the collection of field replicates to demonstrate the precision of confirmation testing. ...
 

18.0 Report Formats and Content Guidelines
...section presents recommended format and content guidelines for planning, documentation, decision-making, and management document submittals under the Hawai`i State Contingency Plan (Hawai`i ...
 

18.3 Types of Documents, Reports and Forms
...is little opportunity for formal review and consultation with other parties prior to decision-making. Many of these questions are addressed informally, often with pre-established decisions ...
 
...Many of these questions are addressed informally, often with pre-established decisions for specific scenarios, and simply documented after the fact (see Section 2.3). ...
 
...HEER Office and provide adequate documentation and support for investigation and cleanup decisions. If reports are poorly documented, decisions cannot be supported by the HEER Office regardless ...
 
...If reports are poorly documented, decisions cannot be supported by the HEER Office regardless of how appropriate and well-executed the ...
 
...or letters are the responsibility of the HEER Office to document official HEER Office decisions. However, they may be utilized by consultants/PRPs as planning tools. Supporting ...
 

18.5 Document Outlines
... 3.1 Situation Preceding Decision to Conduct Removal   ...
 
... 3.1 Situation Preceding Decision to Conduct Removal   ...
 
...would be carefully considered and addressed, as appropriate, before making a final decision on the appropriate response action. In the case of emergency response removal actions, or if ...
 
... 4.4 Define the Decision Units   ...
 
... 4.5 Decision Statements   ...
 
...The QAPP is required for all data collection activities that generate data for use in decision-making. See Section 3.7 for additional information regarding QAPPs. The QAPP is typically ...
 
... 4.0 Decision Units 5.0 ...
 
...circumstances), or fill data gaps related to remedial alternatives that are important for decision-making. Similar to a Site Investigation Report, a Remedial Investigation Report presents accurate ...
 
...HDOH will evaluate all comments received and make a final remedy selection decision for the site. The Draft Response Action Memorandum, as well as ...
 
... 5.2 Decision Units for Confirmation Sampling   ...
 

19.1 Site Closure Scoping
... Planning or knowledge regarding future land use is crucial to evaluating site closure decisions. Evaluating future land use typically involves reviewing available records, determining current ...
 

19.4 No Further Active Remediation Letter
...is not practicable. The guidance document includes discussion and figures providing decision trees to address long-term oversight of residual petroleum contamination. ...
 

Log of TGM Updates
... 4 Decision Unit Characterization Aug, 2016 ...
 
...   Use of Decision Unit and Multi-increment Soil Sample Investigation Approaches to Characterize a ...
 
...   Technical Guidance Manual Notes: Decision Unit and Multi-increment Sample Investigations. Mar 25, 2011 ...
 

PDF Download Page
...   Use of Decision Unit and Multi-increment Soil Sample Investigation Approaches to Characterize ...
 
... Technical Guidance Manual Notes: Decision Unit and Multi-increment Sample Investigations. ...
 

Additional Guidance Documents" Language="VB" MasterPageFile="~/lib/Content.master
... March 2011 Use of Decision Unit and Multi-increment Soil Sample Investigation Approaches to Characterize ...
 
...at a site on Hickam Air Force Base, O`ahu was investigated using Decision Unit (DU) and Multi-increment Sampling (MIS) techniques. 29 borings were installed ...
 
... and layers were investigated separately, but combined to make decisions about the DU as a whole. A total of 164 �core ...
 
... Technical Guidance Manual Notes: Decision Unit and Multi-increment Sample Investigations. A compilation ...
 
... A compilation of notes and recommendations for Decision Unit (DU) and Multi-increment Sampling (MIS) site investigations. ...
 

7.10 Documentation of Soil Vapor or Indoor Air Sampling
...that provide better coverage of targeted, indoor areas and volume of air (i.e., �Decision Units (DU)�) are currently being reviewed (see TGM Sections 2 and 3). Although guidance ...
 

7.10 Documentation of Soil Vapor or Indoor Air Sampling
...work well for TPH as comprehensive data but GC/MS methods are recommended for final, decision making. As discussed in the following section, Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ...
 
...the laboratory). TO-15 or TO-17 recommended for final, decision making purposes. GC - gas chromatography ...
 
... The currently preferred laboratory method to test for TPH in soil vapors for final decision making purposes is a combination of both TO-15 (Summa canister samples) and TO-17 (sorbent ...
 
... error. This is relatively straight forward for soil investigations, where a designated Decision Unit (DUs) is subsampled by collection of a single, multi-increment sample (refer to Section ...
 
...and 5). Replicates are collected to verify that the number of increments collected in the Decision Unit, typically thirty to fifty, adequately capture the contaminant heterogeneity and provide ...
 

7.10 Documentation of Soil Vapor or Indoor Air Sampling
...of data is a key element in planning the project as the data will drive the decision. When planning an investigation, project planners should agree on interpretation of the data ...
 
...of the data to HEER Office action levels will significantly expedite data evaluation and decision making. 7.14.1 Soil Vapor Sample Evaluation The HEER ...
 
...Currently HEER Office guidance recommends a focus on subslab soil gas data for final decisions regarding potential vapor intrusion risks from multiple compounds, such as chlorinated ...
 

9.4 Methane
... ' 9.4 METHANE Figure 9.1 Methane Mitigation Decision Matrix Distance to structure ...
 
...Monitoring 1. Decision matrix modeled after Geonsyntec 2011. 2. Actions listed in this decision matrix ...
 
...matrix modeled after Geonsyntec 2011. 2. Actions listed in this decision matrix assume soil gas pressure is < 2 in-H2O. If soil gas pressure is greater ...
 
...end of distance criteria). If reduced controls are utilized, a mitigation decision matrix for soil gas and indoor air data should be developed. 4. Methane Monitoring ...
 

13.7 HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENTS
...of COPCs. It is important to remember that COPCs may be uniquely selected for individual decision units (see Section 3.6). In addition, COPCs may be uniquely selected for each environmental ...
 
...evaluation of soil data to estimate representative contaminant concentrations within decision units (including exposure point concentrations for evaluation of direct-exposure hazards) is ...
 
...of approaches to determine average contaminant concentrations for exposure areas or decision units is presented in Sections 3 and Section 4 . The final step in the ...
 
...site and used for comparison to the HDOH Tier 1 EALs. If a given site has more than one decision unit, exposure point concentrations must be developed for each decision unit. Statistical approaches ...
 
...unit, exposure point concentrations must be developed for each decision unit. Statistical approaches are generally necessary to determine the exposure point concentrations. ...
 
...sampling strategy is used to collect samples, replicate samples from the same decision unit allow for statistical calculation of several important quantities, including the standard ...
 
...are 95% confident does not exceed the true mean of the population (e.g., in an individual decision unit). To calculate the 95% UCL for multi-increment sample (MIS) data, three or ...
 
...see Section 4. Triplicates are typically recommended for MIS data, either for a single decision unit (DU), or one DU sampled in triplicate representing a "batch" of up to 2-10 similar ...
 
...of use, etc. such as former agricultural fields for a particular crop/area). If the decision units are heterogeneous in key physical characteristics, contaminant sources, or history of ...
 
...contaminant sources, or history of use, triplicates must be collected from each decision unit to calculate a 95% UCL for each decision unit. When the DU replicate ...
 
...unit to calculate a 95% UCL for each decision unit. When the DU replicate data meet an initial data quality measure for relative ...
 
...are far below relevant site Environmental Action Levels they are unlikely to affect site decision-making. Where non-detect data are encountered in MIS investigations, including calculations ...
 
...sampling strategies to establish representative soil contaminant concentrations for decision units. When using a discrete sampling strategy, sample locations should be randomly selected ...
 
...a discrete sampling strategy, sample locations should be randomly selected within the decision unit; and effort should be made to maximize the number of discrete samples collected within ...
 
...effort should be made to maximize the number of discrete samples collected within each decision unit (30 or more discrete samples from each decision unit would be best, or as close to this ...
 
...unit (30 or more discrete samples from each decision unit would be best, or as close to this number as feasible). A statistical derivation ...
 
...should not be included in estimation of exposure point concentrations. Instead, use decision unit strategies to divide the site and group data points prior to calculating exposure point ...
 
...concentrations (see Sections 3 and Section 4 for more information regarding decision units). For residential land use scenarios, sample data should not be averaged over areas greater ...
 

Appendix 9-B Initial Shortlist of Pesticides Used in Sugarcane and Pineapple Operations
... 4 USEPA. Reregistration Eligibility Decision - Amitrole. List A. Case 0095. (http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/REDs/0095red.pdf) ...
 

8.0 FIELD SCREENING METHODS
...planning steps outlined in Section 3 of the TGM. Site investigation objectives and decision statements should be developed to guide the investigation. This should include a thorough review ...
 
...obvious disposal areas, etc. Fixed laboratory data are generally collected for final decision making purposes. As described in this section, benefits of field screening include: ...
 
...general magnitude of contamination in order to assist in initial site evaluation and Decision Unit (DU) designation for more detailed characterization; Rapid identification ...
 
...XRF). The time and cost required to meet necessary data quality requirements for final decision making purposes utilizing field screening methods should be considered as part of the site ...
 
...of errors. However, the data are still subject to small-scale variability and erroneous decisions regarding apparently isolated �hot spots� and �cold spots.� At the other end of the spectrum, ...
 
...Multi Increment samples tested at a fixed-laboratory are recommended to confirm initial decisions (see Section 4). Final confirmation could in theory be accomplished with field screening ...
 
...are typically followed by or used in conjunction with laboratory analysis testing for decision-making. Used in concert with laboratory analysis measurements, field screening data can ...
 

8.1 SELECTING A FIELD SCREENING METHOD
...The HEER Office currently requires laboratory-quality confirmation data for final decision making, especially for clearance of �clean� areas from further investigation. Field screening ...
 

8.2 DATA QUALITY CONTROL AND DOCUMENTATION
...contaminants but not concentrations for targeted, individual compounds needed for final decision making. This is true for some PAH field test kits. Due to potential matrix effects from moisture ...
 
...sample data as described in Section 3 and Section 4 is recommended for final decision making. Use of field analysis methods requires more attention and quality control ...
 
...objectives. Traditional laboratory data are currently relied upon for final decision making purposes. Correlation analyses can be performed for field and laboratory confirmation ...
 
...for field and laboratory confirmation data to utilize in data interpretation and decisions (if correlations are good). This might include, for example, correlation of the concentration ...
 
...significantly improve interpretation of field screening data and confidence in initial decision making. Combined with the use of DU and MIS investigation approaches and associated field and ...
 

8.4 FIELD SCREENING METHODS FOR SELECT CONTAMINANTS AND MEDIA
...than total concentration data are used for human health risk and removal/remediation decision making purposes (HDOH, 2011c). Advantages of Field-based XRF: ...
 
...as well as matrix interferences (refer to Section 4.1.2). A Decision Unit (DU) should be designated for a specific area of interest (e.g., suspect Spill ...
 
... Compare the average of the readings for a sample to action levels for decision making (refer to Section 3.2.1 and Section 3.4). Note that small-scale ...
 
...processing and subsampling of bulk samples, are normally required for final decision making purposes unless otherwise approved by HDOH. The entire bulk sample should be ...
 
...to laboratory analyses of the same samples can be used to increase confidence in decision making in the field (see Cutler 2009). A relatively small number of SSCSs can ...
 
...soil type are recommended. Use of XRF Data for Final Decision Making It is feasible that the combined use of grids of samples to assist in DUs designation, ...
 
...and strong correlation of field data with fixed laboratory data could allow final decision making at a site based primarily on grids of field XRF sample data in the absence of ...
 
...samples; Discuss how the XRF data were used for decision making in the field and will be used for any subsequent investigation work, and other ...
 
...evaluation of this method. Laboratory confirmation data required for final decision making. USEPA 9074 (USEPA, 2007h): Turbidimetric Screening ...
 
...evaluation of this method. Laboratory confirmation data required for final decision making purposes. RemScan (REMScan, 2014): Infrared Spectrophotometry ...
 
...evaluation of this method. Laboratory confirmation data required for final decision making. ...
 
...evaluation of this method. Laboratory confirmation data required for final decision making. ...
 
...evaluation of this method. Laboratory confirmation data required for final decision making. USEPA 4035 (USEPA, 1996m): Soil Screening for PAHs ...
 
...provides specific PID screening levels than can be used for final, site closure decisions. For example, based on studies conducted by that agency, 200 grams of soil with 25 mg/kg ...
 
...At this time, the HEER office has not adopted PID screening levels for final decision making purposes, so concerns of PID saturation and the use of a small sample mass are not ...
 
...evaluation of this method. Laboratory confirmation data required for final decision making. Maine DEP (MEDEP 2012): Oleophilic Dye Test ...
 
...evaluation of this method. Laboratory comparison data required for final decision making purposes. USEPA 9078 (USEPA, 1996o): Screening Test Method ...
 
...PCBs for municipal landfills. Caution should be used, however, when using results for decision making purposes on discrete samples rather than MI samples. ...
 
...evaluation of this method. Laboratory comparison data required for final decision making purposes. USEPA 9079 (USEPA,1996p): Screening Test Method ...
 
...evaluation of this method. Laboratory comparison data required for final decision making purposes. 8.4.4 DIOXINS Dioxins ...
 
... Data Use: Quantitative data at preselected decision levels (requires comparability analysis with GC/MS data; see Subsection 8.2) ...
 
...or equivalent sample data and laboratory comparison samples required for final decision making purposes. If compounds known to cause false positives are also present at the site, ...
 
...Increment or equivalent sample data and laboratory comparison data required for final decision making purposes. If compounds known to cause false positives are also present at the site, ...
 
...method may not be appropriate. Laboratory comparison samples are required for final decision making. USEPA 4015 (USEPA, 1996t): Screening for 2,4-D in ...
 
... or equivalent sample data and laboratory comparison data are required for final decision making purposes. USEPA 4670 (USEPA, 2007j): Triazine Herbicides ...
 
...this method may not be appropriate. Laboratory comparison data is required for final decision making purposes. USEPA 4010A (USEPA, 1996u): Screening for Pentachlorophenol ...
 
...or equivalent sample data and laboratory comparison data are required for final decision making purposes. If compounds known to cause false positives are also present at the site, ...
 
...or equivalent sample data and laboratory comparison data are required for final decision making purposes. 8.4.7 EXPLOSIVES ...
 
...or equivalent sample data and laboratory comparison samples are required for final decision making purposes. USEPA 4051 (USEPA, 1996w): RDX in Soil by Immunoassay ...
 
...or equivalent sample data and laboratory comparison samples are required for final decision making purposes. USEPA 8515 (USEPA, 1996x): Colorimetric Screening ...
 
...or equivalent sample data and laboratory comparison samples are required for final decision making purposes. ul li { line-height: 1.25em; ...
 

8.5 FIELD SCREENING WITH CONE PENETROMETER AND SENSORS/PROBES
...ability to rapidly locate and identify contaminants reduces uncertainty in management decisions associated with costly cleanup projects, such as those commonly involving source zones ...
 
...or groundwater data to fully support human health risk assessments or remediation decisions. Determining the depth at which the sample was taken when the sampler ...