3.2 Systematic Planning Of Site Investigation
... Step 2—Identify the Objectives and Chemicals of Potential Concern (COPCs) The primary objective of the Site Investigation is to collect data ...
 
... What areas of the site may require additional investigation? What COPCs may be in each area? What is the appropriate size and location ...
 
... exposure areas for detailed characterization. The target COPCs should be identified early in the process based on the known or suspected past history ...
 
...is rarely required. The rationale for including a chemical as a COPC should be clearly stated. A chemical should not be listed as a COPC simply because it is ...
 
...should be clearly stated. A chemical should not be listed as a COPC simply because it is included in a default suite of chemicals reported for a specific laboratory ...
 
...for a specific laboratory method. For example, if lead and arsenic are target COPCs for a site due to historical operations then they should be specifically referenced, rather ...
 
...and silver). This helps to ensure that the rationale for the selection of target COPCs is clearly discussed and minimizes the use of resources on unnecessary testing. Section ...
 
...testing. Section 9 provides supplemental guidance regarding the selection of COPCs for several specific types of releases. Refer also to common contaminants listed in the ...
 
...to be investigated to determine the following: Can some groups of COPCs be eliminated from further consideration and testing based on data from previous investigations? ...
 
... What are the potential environmental hazards posed by targeted COPCs? What types of media should be collected and analyzed (e.g., soil, soil ...
 
... Identify the optimal laboratory analytical method for the target COPCs and the media to be tested. Issues to consider in selecting lab analytical methods include: ...
 
...lab method is available, is one method considered more accurate for the target COPC? Are reporting limits for each method sufficiently low to meet Tier 1 ...
 
...Are reporting limits for each method sufficiently low to meet Tier 1 EALs for the COPC and, if not, are they within the generally acceptable range for commercial laboratories? ...
 
...in Section 8. Data collected for targeted COPCs should be compared to action levels specific to the media tested. This is one of the primary ...
 
...most sites. Environmental hazards that could be posed by targeted COPCs should ultimately be reflected in the Sampling and Analysis Plan. For example, a potential ...
 
...unit will depend on the specific, potential environmental hazards posed by the target COPCs, the intended use of the site and proposed response actions. Known or suspected spill ...
 
... What are the primary environmental hazards posed by the target COPCs? How should the decision units be defined to evaluate these potential ...
 
...>30) is generally required to obtain a representative concentration of targeted COPCs for the DU as a whole. Establishing DUs early in the investigation ...
 
... Should resources be focused on an investigation of a specific COPC or environmental hazard? Are adequate maps of the site available and if ...
 
...the designated maximum particle size, if soil) will be necessary to run all the COPC analyses planned? How many field replicates are required ...
 
...data and precision of estimated mean concentrations, given the targeted DUs and COPCs? Is the lab familiar with, and does it have protocols for representative ...
 
...also to Section 13). This helps ensure that DUs appropriate for the targeted COPC are designated and ensure that the appropriate amount and type of sample data are ...
 
...include: Do reported concentrations of target COPCS exceed Tier 1 EALs and indicate the presence of potential environmental hazards? ...
 
...sample data. The EALs are intended for comparison to the mean concentration of a COPC in the target media (e.g., soil, air or water) over a specified area and volume of that ...
 
... absence of previously suspected hazards? Do reported concentrations of COPCs in soil present potential exposure hazards and warrant further analyses of the soil ...
 
... arsenic analysis; see Section 9.1.3.2)? Do reported concentrations of COPCs in soil present potential leaching hazards, indicating a need for soil leaching ...
 
...and/or the collection of groundwater data (Section 6)? Do reported concentrations of COPCs in soil or groundwater data present potential vapor intrusion concerns, indicating ...
 
...or indoor air sampling data (Section 7)? Do reported levels of volatile COPCs in soil gas present potential explosive subsurface conditions, indicating the need ...
 
...to collect additional groundwater, sediment or surface water data? Do high levels of COPCs in soil and groundwater pose a threat to offsite migration which could lead to contamination ...
 

3.3 Conceptual Site Models
...potential environmental hazards in terms of the environmental fate and transport of COPCs targeted for a site is important for development of a CSM and subsequent stages of an ...
 
...of DUs is intricately tied to the type of environmental hazard(s) posed by the COPC. Common environmental hazards associated with contaminated soil and groundwater (Figures ...
 
...used to develop the HDOH Tier 1 EALs. The applicability of each hazard for a given COPC should be reviewed on a site-by-site basis, depending on the nature of the contaminant ...
 

3.4 Selection Of Decision Units
... collected from a minimum 10% of DUs (see Section 4). See Section 9 for COPCs for pesticides. Refer to the HDOH Environmental Action Level guidance for a list of potential ...
 
...HDOH Environmental Action Level guidance for a list of potential munitions-related COPCs (HDOH 2016). Note that the baseline investigation ...
 

3.5 Example Decision Units
...are used to evaluate direct exposure hazards and leaching hazards. The full suite of COPCs is tested for in each sample. The results of the investigation and a summary of the subsequent ...
 

3.8 Data Quality Assessment
...Evaluation be prepared and submitted with a site investigation report. Representative COPC concentrations developed as part of this evaluation may involve further statistical evaluation, ...
 

3.10 Environmental Hazard Evaluation
...by direct comparison of site data to HDOH Tier 1 EALs. If the reported concentration of a COPC exceeds the Tier 1 EAL in the subject media (e.g., soil, soil gas, or groundwater) then the ...
 
... contamination. The identification of potential leaching hazards associated with a COPC suggests that batch testing and/or groundwater data may be needed. The identification of potential ...
 

4.2 Use Of Multi Increment Samples To Characterize DUs
...site or cost constraints (e.g., reduced certainty in mean concentrations of targeted COPCs). Under these circumstances, it is important that a judgment call be made prior to sampling ...
 
...judgment is critical in reviewing relevant information and choosing DUs where COPCs will be representatively sampled. Decision units represent the desired scale of mean contaminant ...
 
... scenarios; The type of environmental hazard presented by the COPCs; Knowledge of any spill areas; Site physical characteristics ...
 
... Site physical characteristics that could influence the distribution of COPCs (e.g. soil types); Historical information on past site activities (e.g. ...
 
...a review of such information, judgment is used to define DUs that will best represent COPCs at the site. Once DUs are selected, representative sampling methods are employed to sample ...
 
...DU. It is also important to have replicates representing all the different COPCs that may be investigated in DUs at a particular site. ...
 

5.4 Subsurface Soil Sample Collection
...for a more intensive investigation (e.g., presence of absence of staining, potential COPCs, boundary between contaminated fill and native soil boundary, etc.; (see Section 3.4.4). ...
 

10.2 Quality Assurance Objectives
...proposed alternative laboratory reporting limit for the Chemical of Potential Concern (COPC) in a SAP or QAPP. Advance concurrence from the HEER Office for use of reporting limits above ...
 

10.3 Data Quality Assurance Procedures
...Soil replicates/ triplicates Depends on numbers of Decision Units (DU), COPCs, site characteristics. See Section 4.2.3 regarding field replicates ...
 
...adequate numbers of increments or samples to determine a representative average COPC concentration in each decision unit; collecting samples at several different phases of natural ...
 
... Representativeness should be assessed for each matrix (media) and for each COPC. In addition to trip blanks for sites with volatile organics sampling (see Subsection ...
 

10.6 Field QA/QC
...upon a variety of factors including the sample matrix (i.e., soil, water, or gas phase), COPCs, and QA/QC questions to be answered. The number of field QA/QC samples is site and project ...
 
...for collecting replicate QA/QC samples is strongly dependent upon the sample matrix, the COPCs, and the QA/QC questions to be answered, particularly when considering Multi-Increment sample ...
 

10.7 Laboratory QA/QC
...An aliquot (extraction blank) equal in mass to the sample and known to be free of the COPCs is used for method blank analysis. The matrix of the method blank is selected to represent ...
 

Contents
...   13.5.1 IDENTIFY KEY COPCS   13.5.2 ...
 
... 13.7.1.1 DATA USABILITY EVALUATION/SELECTION OF COPCS     ...
 

13.0 Environmental Hazard Evaluation
... Figure 13-1. Expanded Overview of the Environmental Hazard Evaluation Process. Note: COPC = Chemicals of Potential Concern. In this step of the site assessment ...
 

13.3 TIER 1 ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION LEVELS
...soil or groundwater is identified. The list of Chemicals of Potential Concern (COPCs) can be quickly narrowed down by direct comparison of soil and groundwater data to the Tier ...
 
...of overall site conditions. Delineation of the narrowed list of target COPCs to non-detect levels is often impracticable and, from a hazard evaluation standpoint, unnecessary. ...
 

13.5 STEPS TO ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD EVALUATION
...part of the Environmental Hazard Evaluation include: Of the initial list of COPCs, which contaminants could pose potential environmental hazards under uncontrolled site ...
 
... What are the specific environmental hazards posed by the targeted COPCs? Are additional site data needed to better define the extent and magnitude of ...
 
... of site conditions is gained. 13.5.1 IDENTIFY KEY COPCS Preliminary COPCs are selected based on the known or assumed past use of hazardous ...
 
... Preliminary COPCs are selected based on the known or assumed past use of hazardous chemicals at the site. This ...
 
...and analysis plan. For example, if gasoline was stored at the site then the target COPCs should be TPH-gasoline, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), lead and fuel ...
 
...Related contaminants such as arsenic, lead, mercury and dioxins should also be considered COPCs. Additional guidance for pesticide and petroleum contamination is provided in Section 9. Refer ...
 
...Soil and Groundwater guidance document (HDOH, 2016). The list of COPCs can be quickly narrowed down once initial data are obtained by a comparison of data to the ...
 
... warranted. Contaminants that exceed the Tier 1 EALs should continue to be considered COPCs and carried through the environmental hazard evaluation process. 13.5.2 ...
 
...into individual decision units (DU) and the representative concentration of target COPCs within each DU determined. For groundwater and soil gas samples, direct reference to reported ...
 
...For groundwater and soil gas samples, direct reference to reported concentrations of COPCs in single monitoring wells or soil gas collection points is appropriate. ...
 

13.6 PREPARATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD EVALUATION REPORTS
...of HDOH EALs or alternative action levels: Do Tier 1 EALs exist for all COPCs? Does the site have a high public profile and warrant a fully documented, detailed ...
 
...a separate chapter in the site investigation report with EAL Surfer printouts for target COPCs included in the report. For more complicated sites where multiple site investigations ...
 

16.2 Setting Remedial Action Objectives and Conducting a Remedial Alternatives Analysis
...questions requiring answers, site characteristics, chemicals of potential concern (COPCs), and potential outcomes. Examples of remedial action objectives for ...
 

7.10 Documentation of Soil Vapor or Indoor Air Sampling
... can also serve as a vapor intrusion pathway. Depending on the COPC, screening for VOCs using direct reading instruments, such as a high sensitivity PID (e.g. ...
 

7.10 Documentation of Soil Vapor or Indoor Air Sampling
...or outdoor sources. The lab method(s) selected should optimize the number of targeted COPCs that can be reported in a single analysis and limit overlap between different methods. ...
 

13.7 HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENTS
... Data Usability Evaluation/ Selection of COPCs Collate the site investigation ...
 
...site investigation data Evaluate the data Select COPCs ...
 
... Identify toxicity values for the COPCs ...
 
... Quantify exposure point concentrations Calculate exposure for each COPC/medium/pathway combination ...
 
...hazard indices. Summarize the site risks by COPC and medium for the receptors, exposure scenarios, and exposure pathways ...
 
...briefly reviewed below. 13.7.1.1 DATA USABILITY EVALUATION/SELECTION OF COPCS Most of this task is completed during site investigation and presented in the ...
 
...Elements of data assessment are presented in Section 3.9. A preliminary list of COPCs is developed in the scoping process during site investigation planning (see Section 3.3). ...
 
...in the scoping process during site investigation planning (see Section 3.3). The COPCs are refined as the site investigation objectives are developed and the site investigation ...
 
...data to Tier 1 EALs is a good starting point for refining and finalizing the list of COPCs. It is important to remember that COPCs may be uniquely selected for individual decision units ...
 
...It is important to remember that COPCs may be uniquely selected for individual decision units (see Section 3.6). In addition, COPCs ...
 
...may be uniquely selected for individual decision units (see Section 3.6). In addition, COPCs may be uniquely selected for each environmental medium (e.g., COPCs for soil may be different ...
 
...may be uniquely selected for each environmental medium (e.g., COPCs for soil may be different that the COPCs for groundwater). The identified list of COPCs will ...
 
...for soil may be different that the COPCs for groundwater). The identified list of COPCs will be the focus of the HHRA. ...
 
... for groundwater). The identified list of COPCs will be the focus of the HHRA. 13.7.1.2 EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT ...
 
...identified, exposure point concentrations quantified, and exposures calculated for each COPC/medium/pathway combination in the Exposure Assessment. The statistical evaluation of soil data ...
 
...exposure point concentrations for receptors are necessary to quantify exposures for each COPC/medium/pathway combination. Exposure factors are available in Exposure Factors Handbook (USEPA, ...
 
... The final step in the exposure assessment is quantifying the Average Daily Intake of COPCs for the identified potential receptors in the exposure scenarios. The daily intake equations ...
 
...of the Toxicity Assessment is to weigh available evidence regarding the potential for the COPCs to cause adverse effects in exposed individuals and to provide, where possible, an estimate ...
 
...where possible, an estimate of the relationship between the extent of exposure to a COPC and the increased likelihood and/or severity of adverse effects (USEPA, 1989e). Because the ...
 
...the USEPA has established values for the toxicity of most typically encountered COPCs, the toxicity assessment generally consists of locating and collating toxicity information ...
 
...to produce quantitative estimates of potential health risks associated with the COPCs. For carcinogens, cancer risks are calculated according to the following equation ...
 
...must be made to conduct a human health risk assessment for sites at which lead is a COPC. For lead risk assessments, the EPA currently recommends two models to assess exposure, depending ...
 

13.8 ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSEMENTS
...release, migration, and fate identify COPCs, receptors, exposure pathways, and known ecological effects of the contaminants ...
 

Appendix 9-C Summary of Pesticides Used in Sugarcane and Pineapple Operations
...Analytical Grouping1 Retained as COPC for Sugar Cane? (Field Areas)2 Retained ...
 
...Cane? (Field Areas)2 Retained as COPC for Sugar Cane? (Non-Field areas)2 ...
 
... (Non-Field areas)2 Retained as COPC for Pineapple? (Field Areas)2 Retained ...
 
... (Field Areas)2 Retained as COPC for Pineapple? (Non-Field areas)2 ...
 
...Analytical Grouping1 Retained as COPC for Sugar Cane? (Field Areas)2 Retained ...
 
...Cane? (Field Areas)2 Retained as COPC for Sugar Cane? (Non-Field areas)2 ...
 
... (Non-Field areas)2 Retained as COPC for Pineapple? (Field Areas)2 Retained ...
 
... (Field Areas)2 Retained as COPC for Pineapple? (Non-Field areas)2 ...
 
...Analytical Grouping1 Retained as COPC for Sugar Cane? (Field Areas)2 Retained ...
 
...Cane? (Field Areas)2 Retained as COPC for Sugar Cane? (Non-Field areas)2 ...
 
... (Non-Field areas)2 Retained as COPC for Pineapple? (Field Areas)2 Retained ...
 
... (Field Areas)2 Retained as COPC for Pineapple? (Non-Field areas)2 ...
 
...Analytical Grouping1 Retained as COPC for Sugar Cane? (Field Areas)2 Retained ...
 
...Cane? (Field Areas)2 Retained as COPC for Sugar Cane? (Non-Field areas)2 ...
 
... (Non-Field areas)2 Retained as COPC for Pineapple? (Field Areas)2 Retained ...
 
... (Field Areas)2 Retained as COPC for Pineapple? (Non-Field areas)2 ...
 
...Analytical Grouping1 Retained as COPC for Sugar Cane? (Field Areas)2 Retained ...
 
...Cane? (Field Areas)2 Retained as COPC for Sugar Cane? (Non-Field areas)2 ...
 
... (Non-Field areas)2 Retained as COPC for Pineapple? (Field Areas)2 Retained ...
 
... (Field Areas)2 Retained as COPC for Pineapple? (Non-Field areas)2 ...
 
... 2 Retained as chemical of potential concern (COPC) if: any of the following: ● Known ...
 

8.0 FIELD SCREENING METHODS
...in a semi-quantitative manner, with the understanding that concentrations of the targeted COPCs in immediately surrounding soils could vary by up to an order of magnitude or more. The objective ...
 
...or more. The objective of screening is not to identify the �maximum� concentration of the COPC in the bulk sample or DU, since this is entirely dependent on the volume/mass of soil tested. ...
 
...small masses of soil at a site will not identify the maximum concentration of the COPC present, and doing so is not relevant to investigation objectives. The ...